Week #153; Wed, Dec 02: 1 Peter 1–1 John 2

Week #153; Wed, Dec 02: 1 Peter 1:1–1 John 2:29

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

1 Peter 1, I. Greeting and Born Again to a Living Hope; II. Called to Be Holy

I. KEY TEXT (Greeting and Born Again to a Living Hope): “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood: May grace and peace be multiplied to you.” (1:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you, who by God’s power are being guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. In this you rejoice, though now for a little while, if necessary, you have been grieved by various trials, so that the tested genuineness of your faith–more precious than gold that perishes though it is tested by fire–may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ.” (1:3-7)
1. FINDINGS: “Though you have not seen him, you love him. Though you do not now see him, you believe in him and rejoice with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory, obtaining the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls.” (1:8-9)
2. CRITERIA: “Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories.” (1:10-11)
3. CONDITION: “It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things that have now been announced to you, through those who preached the good news to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look.” (1:12)
4. CAUSE: “Our inheritance is prepared and kept for us, as we for it. We who believe may count on the guarding power of God. Not till our spirit is joined to a perfected body in the presence of Christ will our salvation be complete.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The best diamonds take longer in cutting and polishing. But, after all, compared to the eternity before us, it is but short-lived, and there is a needs-be for all. Hope in 1Peter 1:3, faith in 1Peter 1:7, love in 1Peter 1:8, blend in the joy that is unspeakable and full of the glory which is as yet hidden.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Seek then to believe Christ’s excellence in himself, and his love to us; this will kindle such a fire in the heart as will make it rise up in a sacrifice of love to him. And the glory of God and our own happiness are so united, that if we sincerely seek the one now, we shall attain the other when the soul shall no more be subject to evil. The certainty of this hope is as if believers had already received it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Called to Be Holy): “Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ. As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance, but as he who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct, since it is written, ‘You shall be holy, for I am holy.’ And if you call on him as Father who judges impartially according to each one’s deeds, conduct yourselves with fear throughout the time of your exile, knowing that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your forefathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.” (1:13-19)
A. INFERENCE: “He was foreknown before the foundation of the world but was made manifest in the last times for the sake of you who through him are believers in God, who raised him from the dead and gave him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.” (1:20-21)
1. FINDINGS: “Having purified your souls by your obedience to the truth for a sincere brotherly love, love one another earnestly from a pure heart, since you have been born again, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God; for ‘All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower falls, but the word of the Lord remains forever.’ And this word is the good news that was preached to you.” (1:22-25)
2. CRITERIA: “Holy confidence in God as a Father, and awful fear of him as a Judge, agree together; and to regard God always as a Judge, makes him dear to us as a Father. If believers do evil, God will visit them with corrections.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Then, let Christians not doubt God’s faithfulness to his promises, nor give way to enslaving dread of his wrath, but let them reverence his holiness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It is folly to resolve, I will live and die in such a way, because my forefathers did so. God had purposes of special favor toward his people, long before he made manifest such grace unto them.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “But the clearness of light, the supports of faith, the power of ordinances, are all much greater since Christ came upon earth, than they were before. The comfort is, that being by faith made one with Christ, his present glory is an assurance that where he is we shall be also, John 14:3.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We should hear, and thus receive and love, the holy, living word, and rather hazard all than lose it; and we must banish all other things from the place due to it. We should lodge it in our hearts as our only treasures here, and the certain pledge of the treasure of glory laid up for believers in heaven.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

1 Peter 2:1, I. A Living Stone and a Holy People; II. Submission to Authority

I. KEY TEXT (A Living Stone and a Holy People): “So put away all malice and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander. Like newborn infants, long for the pure spiritual milk, that by it you may grow up into salvation–if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is good.” (2:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “As you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.” (2:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “For it stands in Scripture: ‘Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.’ So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,’ and ‘A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.’ They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.” (2:6-8)
2. CRITERIA: “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.” (2:9)
3. CONDITION: “Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.” (2:10)
4. CAUSE: “Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul. Keep your conduct among the Gentiles honorable, so that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.” (2:11)
5. EFFECT: “As we touch the Living Stone we live, and we touch others who are touching Him, and so a temple begins to grow up. Then we become a holy priesthood in the temple, and finally the sacrifices which are offered within its precincts. If Christ is not that Living Stone for you, He will be your undoing. All that God said of His ancient people may be realized by us in and through Christ.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Thus songs of praise are ever ascending to Him who has called us into His light.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Submission to Authority): “Be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme, or to governors as sent by him to punish those who do evil and to praise those who do good.” (2:13-14)
A. INFERENCE: “For this is the will of God, that by doing good you should put to silence the ignorance of foolish people.” (2:15)
1. FINDINGS: “Live as people who are free, not using your freedom as a cover-up for evil, but living as servants of God. Honor everyone. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the emperor.” (2:16-17)
2. CRITERIA: “Servants, be subject to your masters with all respect, not only to the good and gentle but also to the unjust. For this is a gracious thing, when, mindful of God, one endures sorrows while suffering unjustly.” (2:18-19)
3. CONDITION: “For what credit is it if, when you sin and are beaten for it, you endure? But if when you do good and suffer for it you endure, this is a gracious thing in the sight of God.” (2:20)
4. CAUSE: “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps. He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth.” (2:21)
5. EFFECT: “When He was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed. For you were straying like sheep, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.” (2:22-25)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The argument from this point seems to be: Since you have been redeemed, live worthily of your heavenly calling in relation to your fellow-believers, to God, and to the state, 1Peter 2:17; to your employers, 1Peter 2:18; to husbands, 1Peter 2:1; to wives, 1Peter2:7; to everyone, 1Peter 2:8.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

1 Peter 3:1, I. Wives and Husbands; II. Suffering for Righteousness Sake

I. KEY TEXT (Wives and Husbands): “Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, when they see your respectful and pure conduct.” (3:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “Do not let your adorning be external–the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear–but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God’s sight is very precious.” (3:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands, as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord. And you are her children, if you do good and do not fear anything that is frightening.” (3:5-6)
2. CRITERIA: “Likewise, husbands, live with your wives in an understanding way, showing honor to the woman as the weaker vessel, since they are heirs with you of the grace of life, so that your prayers may not be hindered.” (3:7)
3. CONDITION: “Religious people should take care that all their behavior answers to their profession. But how few know the right measure and bounds of those two necessaries of life, food and raiment! Unless poverty is our carver, and cuts us short, there is scarcely any one who does not desire something beyond what is good for us. Far more are beholden to the lowliness of their state, than the lowliness of their mind; and many will not be so bounded, but lavish their time and money upon trifles.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Christians ought to do their duty to one another, from a willing mind, and in obedience to the command of God. Wives should be subject to their husbands, not from dread and amazement, but from desire to do well, and please God. The husband’s duty to the wife implies giving due respect unto her, and maintaining her authority, protecting her, and placing trust in her.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “They are heirs together of all the blessings of this life and that which is to come, and should live peaceably one with another. Prayer sweetens their converse. And it is not enough that they pray with the family, but husband and wife together by themselves, and with their children.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Those who are acquainted with prayer, find such unspeakable sweetness in it, that they will not be hindered therein. That you may pray much, live holily; and that you may live holily, be much in prayer.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Suffering for Righteousness’ Sake): “Finally, all of you, have unity of mind, sympathy, brotherly love, a tender heart, and a humble mind. Do not repay evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary bless, for to this you were called, that you may obtain a blessing.” (3:8-9)
A. INFERENCE: “For ‘Whoever desires to love life and see good days, let him keep his tongue from evil and his lips from speaking deceit; let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it. For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil.’” (3:10-12)
1. FINDINGS: “Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame. For it is better to suffer for doing good, if that should be God’s will, than for doing evil.” (3:13-17)
2. CRITERIA: “For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.” (3:18-20)
3. CONDITION: “Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.” (3:21-22)
4. CAUSE: “Though Christians cannot always be exactly of the same mind, yet they should have compassion one of another, and love as brethren. If any man desires to live comfortably on earth, or to possess eternal life in heaven, he must bridle his tongue from wicked, abusive, or deceitful words. He must forsake and keep far from evil actions, do all the good he can, and seek peace with all men. For God, all-wise and every where present, watches over the righteous, and takes care of them. None could or should harm those who copied the example of Christ, who is perfect goodness, and did good to others as his followers.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Keep a good conscience! Remember you have to live with yourself! A good conscience is the best bedfellow! Paul exercised himself always to have a conscience void of offense toward God and man, Acts 23:1; Acts 24:16. This is especially necessary when we are called on to give our witness for our Lord. We must not keep silent when we ought to speak, and when we speak we should do so reverently, simply and without heat.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He (Peter) pointed out that believers who maintain a clear conscience while suffering unjustly will put their critics to shame.” (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)

1 Peter 4:1, I. Stewards of God’s Grace; II. Suffering as a Christian

I. KEY TEXT (Stewards of God’s Grace): “Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves with the same way of thinking, for whoever has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin, so as to live for the rest of the time in the flesh no longer for human passions but for the will of God.” (4:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “For the time that is past suffices for doing what the Gentiles want to do, living in sensuality, passions, drunkenness, orgies, drinking parties, and lawless idolatry.” (4:3)
1. FINDINGS: “With respect to this they are surprised when you do not join them in the same flood of debauchery, and they malign you; but they will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.” (3:4-5)
2. CRITERIA: “For this is why the gospel was preached even to those who are dead, that though judged in the flesh the way people are, they might live in the spirit the way God does.” (3:6)
3. CONDITION: “The end of all things is at hand; therefore be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of your prayers.” (3:7)
4. CAUSE: “Above all, keep loving one another earnestly, since love covers a multitude of sins. Show hospitality to one another without grumbling.” (3:8-9)
5. EFFECT: “As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God’s varied grace: whoever speaks, as one who speaks oracles of God; whoever serves, as one who serves by the strength that God supplies–in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” (3:10-11)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We are summoned to a life of prayer. But in order to promote fervency in prayer we must be sober-minded and self-controlled, 1Peter 4:7; loving, 1Peter 4:8; and faithful to our stewardship of all God’s entrusted gifts, 1Peter 4:10. Let us cultivate the invariable habit of looking up from our service, of whatever kind, to claim the ability to do it for the glory of God, 1Peter 4:11.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Suffering as a Christian): “Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery trial when it comes upon you to test you, as though something strange were happening to you.” (4:12)
A. INFERENCE: “But rejoice insofar as you share Christ’s sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed.” (4:13)
1. FINDINGS: “If you are insulted for the name of Christ you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.” (4:14)
2. CRITERIA: “But let none of you suffer as a murderer or a thief or an evildoer or as a meddler.” (4:15)
3. CONDITION: “Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in that name. For it is time for judgment to begin at the household of God; and if it begins with us, what will be the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel of God?” (4:16-17)
4. CAUSE: “And ‘If the righteous is scarcely saved, what will become of the ungodly and the sinner?’” (4:18)
5. EFFECT: “Therefore let those who suffer according to God’s will entruest their souls to a faithful Creator while doing good.” (4:19)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We are called upon to share our Savior’s sufferings-not those of His substitution, but His daily self-denial, the hatred of men, the anguish of His soul over the obstinacy and opposition of the world. The soldier who is nearest his leader, charging through the mêlée of the fight, is likely to get the same treatment as is meted out to his prince. It is not strange! It would be strange if it were not so, and if the traits in us that characterize our Lord did not win the same hatred as they won for Him.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

1 Peter 5, I. Shepherd the Flock of God and Final Greeting

I. KEY TEXT (Shepherd the Flock of God) and Final Greeting: “So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the suffering of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain but eagerly; not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock.” (5:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory. Likewise, you who are younger, be subject to the elders. Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for ‘God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.’” (5:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you.” (5:6-7)
2. CRITERIA: “Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world.” (5:8-9)
3. CONDITION: “And after you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.” (5:10)
4. CAUSE: “To him be the dominion forever and ever. Amen.” (5:11)
5. EFFECT: “By Silvanus, a faithful brother as I regard him, I have written briefly to you, exhorting and declaring that this is the true grace of God. Stand firm in it. She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings, and so does Mark, my son. Greet one another with the kiss of love. Peace to all of you who are in Christ.” (5:13-14)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The salvation of the righteous is a task of enormous difficulty. It requires the dead-lift of Omnipotence. Nothing less will suffice than the infinite grace of the Father, the blood of the Son, and the patience of the Holy Spirit. What will be the fate of those who refuse these! Will they appear at the marriage-supper of the Lamb; and if not-where! What a beautiful closing verse! The committal of the soul, not only to the Savior, but to the Creator. After all, He who made can best understand, adjust and satisfy the nature which He Himself has given!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

2 Peter:1, I. Greeting and Make Your Calling and Election Sure; II. Christ’s Glory and the Prophetic Word

I. KEY TEXT (Greeting and Make Your Calling and Election Sure): “Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ: ‘May grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord.’” (1:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “His divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us to his own glory and excellence, by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world because of sinful desire.” (1:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “For this very reason, make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with steadfastness, and steadfastness with godliness, and godliness with brotherly affection, and brotherly affection with love.” (1:5-7)
2. CRITERIA: “For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they keep you from being ineffective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (1:8)
3. CONDITION: “For whoever lacks these qualities is so nearsighted that he is blind, having forgotten that he was cleansed from his former sins.” (1:9)
4. CAUSE: “Therefore, brothers, be all the more diligent to make you calling and election sure, for if you practice these qualities you will never fall. For in this way there will be richly provided for you an entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.” (1:10-11)
5. EFFECT: “Therefore I intend always to remind you of these qualities, though you know them and are established in the truth that you have. I think it right, as long as I am in this body, to stir you up by way of reminder, since I know that the putting off of my body will be soon, as our Lord Jesus Christ made clear to me. And I will make every effort so that after my departure you may be able at any time to recall these things.” (1:12-15)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “According to these words Peter, though he stood at a distance, must have been an eyewitness of the Savior’s death. He is careful to speak of the glory in the same breath as the sufferings, because if we endure the one, we shall share the other. Positions of influence in the Church in those days involved grave risks, but the Apostle believed that love to Christ would induce men to take the place of under-shepherds to the flock of God, and that they would use their power with gentleness, humility and holy consistency.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Christ’s Glory and the Prophetic Word): “For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.” (1:16)
A. INFERENCE: “For when he received honor and glory from God the Father, and the voice was borne to him by the Majestic Glory, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased,’ we ourselves heard this very voice borne from heaven, for we were with him on the holy mountain.” (1:17-18)
1. FINDINGS: “And we have something more sure, the prophetic word, to which you will do well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts, knowing this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture comes from someone’s own interpretation. For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” (1:19-21)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord Jesus Christ is very merciful to us miserable sinners; and he has a fullness of grace. But even the best of God’s servants, in this life, have only a taste of the consolations of God. Christ is called a Stone, to teach his servants that he is their protection and security, the foundation on which they are built. He is precious in the excellence of his nature, the dignity of his office, and the glory of his services. All true believers are a holy priesthood; sacred to God, serviceable to others, endowed with heavenly gifts and graces. But the most spiritual sacrifices of the best in prayer and praise are not acceptable, except through Jesus Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ is the chief Corner-stone, that unites the whole number of believers into one everlasting temple, and bears the weight of the whole fabric. Elected, or chosen, for a foundation that is everlasting. Precious beyond compare, by all that can give worth. To be built on Christ means, to believe in him; but in this many deceive themselves, they consider not what it is, nor the necessity of it, to partake of the salvation he has wrought.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Though the frame of the world were falling to pieces, that man who is built on this foundation may hear it without fear. He shall not be confounded. The believing soul makes haste to Christ, but it never finds cause to hasten from him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “All true Christians are a chosen generation; they make one family, a people distinct from the world: of another spirit, principle, and practice; which they could never be, if they were not chosen in Christ to be such, and sanctified by his Spirit. Their first state is a state of gross darkness, but they are called out of darkness into a state of joy, pleasure, and prosperity; that they should show forth the praises of the Lord by their profession of his truth, and their good conduct. How vast their obligations to Him who has made them his people, and has shown mercy to them!” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us not dare to abuse and affront the free grace of God, if we mean to be saved by it; but let all who would be found among those who obtain mercy, walk as his people.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

2 Peter 2:1, I. False Prophets and Teachers

I. KEY TEXT (False Prophets and Teachers): “But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who brought them, bring upon themselves swift destruction.” (2:1)
A. INFERENCE: “And many will follow their sensuality, and because of them the way of truth will be blasphemed. And in their greed they will exploit you with false words. Their condemnation from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep.” (2:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment; if he did not spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, when he brought a flood up on the world of the ungodly; if by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly; and if he rescued righteous Lot, greatly distressed by the sensual conduct of the wicked (for as that righteous man lived among them day after day, he was tormenting his righteous soul over their lawless deeds that he saw and heard); then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment, and especially those who indulge in the lust of defiling passion and despise authority.” (2:4-10)
2. CRITERIA: “Bold and willful, they do not tremble as they blaspheme the glorious ones, whereas angels, though greater in might and power do not pronounce a blasphemous judgment against them before the Lord.” (2:10-11)
3. CONDITION: “But these, like irrational animals, creatures of instinct, born to be caught and destroyed, blaspheming about matters of which they are ignorant, will also be destroyed in their destruction, suffering wrong as the wage for their wrongdoing.” (2:12-13)
4. CAUSE: “They count it pleasure to revel in the daytime. They are blots and blemishes, reveling in their deceptions, while they feast with you. The have eyes full of adultery, insatiable for sin. They entice unsteady souls. They have hearts trained in greed. Accursed children!” (2:13-14)
5. EFFECT: “Forsaking the right way, they have gone astray. They have followed the way of Balaam, the son of Beor, who loved gain from wrongdoing, but was rebuked for his own transgression; a speechless donkey spoke with human voice and restrained the prophet’s madness. These are waterless springs and mists driven by a storm. For them the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved. For, speaking loud boasts of folly, they entice by sensual passions of the flesh those who are barely escaping from those who live in error. They promise them freedom, but they themselves are slaves of corruption. For whatever overcomes a person, to that he is enslaved. For if, after they have escaped the defilements of the world through the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled in them and overcome, the last state has become worse for them than the first. For it would have been better for them never to have known the way of righteousness than after knowing it to turn back from the holy commandment delivered to them. What the true proverb says has happened to them; ‘The dog returns to its own vomit, and the sow, after washing herself, returns to wallow in the mire.” (2:15-22)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us ‘who are just escaping,’ 2Peter 2:18, R.V., from the meshes of the world, beware lest we be caught in the guiles and nets of false teaching, which would drag us back into the evils of the worldly life. It is in our heart-felt union with the Lord Jesus Christ alone that we can be permanently secure.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

2 Peter 3:1, I. The Day of the Lord Will Come; II. Final Words

I. KEY TEXT (The Day of the Lord Will Come): “This is now the second letter that I am writing to you, beloved. In both of them I am stirring up your sincere mind by way of reminder, that you should remember the predictions of the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Savior through your apostles, knowing this first of all, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires. They will say, ‘Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things are continuing as they were from the beginning of creation.’” (3:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “For they deliberately overlook this fact, that the heavens existed long ago, and the earth was formed out of water and through water by the word of God, and that by means of these the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished.” (3:5-6)
1. FINDINGS: “But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly. But do not overlook this one fact beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance. But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed.” (3:7-10)
2. CRITERIA: “Since all these things are thus to be dissolved, what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be set on fire and dissolved, and the heavenly bodies will melt as they burn!” (3:11-12)
3. CONDITION: “But according to his promise we are waiting for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.” (3:13)
4. CAUSE: “One very principal article of our faith refers to what only has a promise to rest upon, and scoffers will attack it till our Lord is come. They will not believe that he will come. Because they see no changes, therefore they fear not God, Psalm 55:19. What he never has done, they fancy he never can do, or never will do.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Had these scoffers considered the dreadful vengeance with which God swept away a whole world of ungodly men at once, surely they would not have scoffed at his threatening an equally terrible judgment. The heavens and the earth which now are, by the same word, it is declared, will be destroyed by fire. This is as sure to come, as the truth and the power of God can make it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Settle therefore in your hearts that you shall certainly be called to give an account of all things done in the body, whether good or evil. And let a humble and diligent walking before God, and a frequent judging of yourselves, show a firm belief of the future judgment, though many live as if they were never to give any account at all.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Final Words): “Therefore, beloved, since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace.” (3:14)
A. INFERENCE: “And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.” (3:15-16)
1. FINDINGS: “You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, take care that you are not carried away with the error of lawless people and lose your own stability.” (3:17)
2. CRITERIA: “But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.” (3:18)
3. CONDITION: “In twenty-four hours God can do as much as all His servants at home and abroad could not accomplish in a thousand years. According to God’s chronology, it was on the morning of yesterday that Jesus died. Be watchful. Christ’s coming is certain, but not the hour. If we are blameless now, we shall be faultless presently. See Jude 1:24.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The condition of the world calls on each of us to be holy, as the virgins in their pure dresses, with burning and well-filled lamps. See Matthew 25:1-13. This is the manner in which we may hasten the coming of the day of God. It is not enough to say, “Thy kingdom come.” Each day we should move some pebble from its pathway!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “From the doctrine of Christ’s second coming, we are exhorted to purity and godliness. This is the effect of real knowledge. Very exact and universal holiness is enjoined, not resting in any low measure or degree. True Christians look for new heavens and a new earth; freed from the vanity to which things present are subject, and the sin they are polluted with. Those only who are clothed with the righteousness of Christ, and sanctified by the Holy Ghost, shall be admitted to dwell in this holy place.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Peter set forth the coming judgments of the day of the Lord as an incentive to godly living. The “that day” (3:12) probably refers to that time when Christ hands over the reins of millennial government to God the Father, and the eternal state begins (cf. 1 Cor. 15:24–28; Rev. 21:1). For “promised” (3:13), see 1:4; 2:19; 3:4, 9, 13. The new heavens and earth were prophesied by Isaiah (Isa. 65:17; 66:22; cf. Rev. 21:1). (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)

1 John 1:1, I. The Word of Life and Walking in the Light

I. KEY TEXT (The Word of Life and Walking in the Light): “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word of life–the life was made manifest, and we have seen it, and testify to it and proclaim to you the eternal life, which with the Father and was made manifest to us–that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ And we are writing these things so that our joy may be complete.” (1:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “This is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. If we say we have fellowship with him while we walk in darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth.” (1:5-6)
1. FINDINGS: “But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.” (1:7)
2. CRITERIA: “If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.” (1:8)
3. CONDITION: “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.” (1:9-10)
4. CAUSE: “The apostles had seen Him while they witnessed his wisdom and holiness, his miracles, and love and mercy, during some years, till they saw him crucified for sinners, and afterwards risen from the dead. They touched him, so as to have full proof of his resurrection.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The apostles declared what they had seen and heard, that believers might share their comforts and everlasting advantages. They had free access to God the Father. They had a happy experience of the truth in their souls, and showed its excellence in their lives. This communion of believers with the Father and the Son, is begun and kept up by the influences of the Holy Spirit.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The benefits Christ bestows, are not like the scanty possessions of the world, causing jealousies in others; but the joy and happiness of communion with God is all-sufficient, so that any number may partake of it; and all who are warranted to say, that truly their fellowship is with the Father, will desire to lead others to partake of the same blessedness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

1 John 2:1, I. Christ Our Advocate; II. The New Commandment; III. Do Not Love the World; IV. Warning Concerning Antichrists

I. KEY TEXT (Christ Our Advocate): “My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. ” (2:1)
A. INFERENCE: “He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.” (2:2)
1. FINDINGS: “And by this we know that we have come to know him, if we keep his commandments.” (2:3)
2. CRITERIA: “Whoever says ‘I know him’ but does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in him, but whoever keeps his word, in him truly the love of God is perfected.” (2:4-5)
3. CONDITION: “By this we may know that we are in him: whoever says he abides in him ought to walk in the same way in which he walked.” (2:5-6)
4. CAUSE: “As the aged Apostle began to write he was living over again his first happy experiences with the Savior. He heard the voice, saw the person, touched the very body in which Deity tabernacled. It was too great a bliss to be enjoyed alone, and John tells us that we may enter into the same close partnership with the Father and the Son.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “But no impurity or insincerity is permissible to those who enter that fellowship. Our one aim should be to maintain such a walk with God that the union with God may be unimpaired. If there are still sins of ignorance, the blood of Jesus will continue to remove them. Sin differs from sins, as the root from the fruit.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “God does not only forgive, He cleanses. He is faithful to His promises and just to His Son. Notice the ifs of these verses and in 1John 2:1; they are a compendium of the blessed life.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The New Commandment): “Beloved, I am writing you no new commandment, but an old commandment that you had from the beginning. The old commandment is the word that you have heard.” (2:7)
A. INFERENCE: “At the same time, it is a new commandment that I am writing to you, which is true in him and in you, because the darkness is passing away and the true light is already shining.” (2-8)
1. FINDINGS: “Whoever says he is in the light and hates his brother is still in darkness. Whoever loves his brother abides in the light, and in him there is no cause for stumbling.” (2:9-10)
2. CRITERIA: “But whoever hates his brother is in the darkness and walks in the darkness, and does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded his eyes. ‘I am writing to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven for his name’s sake. I am writing to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I write to you, children, because you know the Father. I write to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I write to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God abides in you, and you have overcome the evil one.” (2:11-14)
3. CONDITION: “The different descriptions of Christians are again addressed. Children in Christ know that God is their Father; it is wisdom. Those advanced believers, who know Him that was from the beginning, before this world was made, may well be led thereby to give up this world. It will be the glory of young persons to be strong in Christ, and his grace. By the word of God they overcome the wicked one.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “But especially young men in Christ Jesus, though they are arrived at strength of spirit and sound sense, and have successfully resisted first trials and temptations, breaking off bad habits and connections, and entered in at the strait gate of true conversion.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christian love teaches us to value our brother’s soul, and to dread every thing hurtful to his purity and peace. Where spiritual darkness dwells, in mind, the judgment, and the conscience will be darkened, and will mistake the way to heavenly life. These things demand serious self-examination; and earnest prayer, that God would show us what we are, and whither we are going.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It is clearly possible to be kept from known and presumptuous sin. We shall be tempted, for that is an inevitable experience of life in this world; but we may be perfectly kept by the indwelling Spirit. Yet if we should be overtaken by some sudden gust of temptation, let us not despair; our Advocate ever makes intercession for us.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Do Not Love the World): “Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.” (2:15)
A. INFERENCE: “For all that is in the world–the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride in possessions–is not from the Father but is from the world.” (2:16)
1. FINDINGS: “And the world is passing away along with its desires, but whoever does the will of God abides forever.” (2:17)
2. CRITERIA: “The things of the world may be desired and possessed for the uses and purposes which God intended, and they are to be used by his grace, and to his glory; but believers must not seek or value them for those purposes to which sin abuses them.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The world draws the heart from God; and the more the love of the world prevails, the more the love of God decays. The things of the world are classed according to the three ruling inclinations of depraved nature: 1. The lust of the flesh, of the body: wrong desires of the heart, the appetite of indulging all things that excite and inflame sensual pleasures; 2. The lust of the eyes: the eyes are delighted with riches and rich possessions; this is the lust of covetousness; and 3. The pride of life: a vain man craves the grandeur and pomp of a vain-glorious life; this includes thirst after honor and applause.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The things of the world quickly fade and die away; desire itself will ere long fail and cease, but holy affection is not like the lust that passes away. The love of God shall never fail.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Unless this victory over the world is begun in the heart, a man has no root in himself, but will fall away, or at most remain an unfruitful professor.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Yet these vanities are so alluring to the corruption in our hearts, that without constant watching and prayer, we cannot escape the world, or obtain victory over the God and prince of it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (Warning Concerning Antichrists): “Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour.” (2:18)
A. INFERENCE: “They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us. But they went out, that it might become plain that they all are not of us. But you have been anointed by the Holy One, and you all have knowledge.” (2:19-20)
1. FINDINGS: “I write to you, not because you do not know the truth, but because you know it, and because no lie is of the truth.” (2:21)
2. CRITERIA: “Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son. No one who denies the Son has the Father. Whoever confesses the Son has the Father also.” (2:22-23)
3. CONDITION: “Let what you heard from the beginning abide in you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, then you too will abide in the Son and in the Father.” (2:24)
4. CAUSE: “And this is the promise that he made to us–eternal life.” (2:25)
5. EFFECT: “I write these things to you about those who are trying to deceive you. But the anointing that you received from him abides in you, and you have no need that anyone should teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about everything, and is true, and is no lie–just as it has taught you, abide in him.” (2:26-27)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The truth of Christ, abiding in us, is a means to sever from sin, and unites us to the Son of God, John 15:3, 4.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Week #154; Wed, Dec 09: 1 John 3, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, and Revelation 3:22

Week #154; Wed, Dec 09: 1 John 3, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation 3:22

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

1 John 3, I. Children of God; II. Love One Another

I. KEY TEXT (Children of God): “And now, little children, abide in him, so that when he appears we may have confidence and not shrink from him in shame at his coming. If you know that he is righteous, you may be sure that everyone who practices righteousness has been born of him. See what kind of love the Father has given to us, that we should be called children of God; and so we are. The reason why the world does not know us is that it did not know him. Beloved, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet appeared; but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, because we shall see him as he is. And everyone who thus hopes in him purifies himself as he is pure.” (2:28-29; 3:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “Everyone who makes a practice of sinning also practices lawlessness; sin is lawlessness. You know that he appeared to take away sins, and in him there is no sin. No one who abides in him keeps on sinning; no one who keeps on sinning has either seen him or known him.” (3:4-6)
1. FINDINGS: “Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practices righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous. Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil.” (3:7-8)
2. CRITERIA: “No one born of God makes a practice of sinning, for God’s seed abides in him, and he cannot keep on sinning because he has been born of God. By this it is evident who are the children of God, and who are the children of the devil: whoever does not practice righteousness is not of God nor is the one who does not love his brother.” (3:9-10)
3. CONDITION: “Why God should have made us His children is incomprehensible, except to show forth the riches of His grace. See Eph_2:7. That such we are is certain, but how marvelous! Yet even greater wonders await us, for we are to be like Jesus our Lord. He is the type to which we are being conformed, and on the other side we shall awake in His likeness.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The sons of God know that their Lord is of purer eyes than to allow any thing unholy and impure to dwell with him. It is the hope of hypocrites, not of the sons of God, that makes allowance for gratifying impure desires and lusts. May we be followers of him as his dear children, thus show our sense of his unspeakable mercy, and express that obedient, grateful, humble mind which becomes us.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Renouncing sin is the great proof of spiritual union with, continuance in, and saving knowledge of the Lord Christ. Beware of self-deceit.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “But a man cannot act like the devil, and at the same time be a disciple of Christ Jesus. Let us not serve or indulge what the Son of God came to destroy. To be born of God is to be inwardly renewed by the power of the Spirit of God. Renewing grace is an abiding principle. Religion is not an art, a matter of dexterity and skill, but a new nature. And the regenerate person cannot sin as he did before he was born of God, and as others do who are not born again.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Love One Another): “For this is the message that you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another. We should not be like Cain, who was of the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his own deeds were evil and his brother’s righteous.” (3:11-12)
A. INFERENCE: “Do not be surprised, brothers, that the world hates you. We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brothers. Whoever does not love abides in death.” (3:13-14)
1. FINDINGS: “Everyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him.” (3:15)
2. CRITERIA: “By this we know love, that he laid down his life for us, and we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers.” (3:16)
3. CONDITION: “But if anyone has the world’s goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how does God’s love abide in him? Little children, let us not love in word or talk but in deed and in truth.” (3:17-18)
4. CAUSE: “By this we shall know that we are of the truth and reassure our heart before him; for whenever our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart, and he knows everything.” (3:19-20)
5. EFFECT: “Beloved, if our heart does not condemn us, we have confidence before God; and whatever we ask we receive from him, because we keep his commandments and do what pleases him. And this is his commandment, that we believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he has commanded us. Whoever keeps his commandments abides in God, and God in him. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit whom he has given us.” (3:21-24)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another.” (3:23)

1 John 4, I. Test the Spirits; II. God is Love

I. KEY TEXT (Test the Spirits): “Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.” (4:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “Little children you are from God and have overcome them, for he who is in you is greater than he who is in the world. They are from the world; therefore they speak from the world, and the world listens to them.” (4:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “We are from God.” (4:6)
2. CRITERIA: “Whoever knows God listens to us; whoever is not from God does not listen to us.” (4:6)
3. CONDITION: “By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of error.” (4:6)
4. CAUSE: “Christians who are well acquainted with the Scriptures, may, in humble dependence on Divine teaching, discern those who set forth doctrines according to the apostles, and those who contradict them. The sum of revealed religion is in the doctrine concerning Christ, his person and office.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The false teachers spake of the world according to its maxims and tastes, so as not to offend carnal men. The world approved them, they made rapid progress, and had many followers such as themselves; the world will love its own, and its own will love it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The true doctrine as to the Savior’s person, as leading men from the world to God, is a mark of the spirit of truth in opposition to the spirit of error. The more pure and holy any doctrine is, the more likely to be of God; nor can we by any other rules try the spirits whether they are of God or not.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (God is Love): “Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God, and whoever loves has been born of God and knows God.” (4:7)
A. INFERENCE: “Anyone who does not love does not know God, because God is love.” (4:8)
1. FINDINGS: “In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him.” (4:9)
2. CRITERIA: “In this is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has ever seen God; if we love one another, God abides in us and his love is perfected in us.” (4:10-12)
3. CONDITION: “By this we know that we abide in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit. And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world. Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God. So we have come to know and to believe the love that God has for us. God is love, and whoever abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him.” (4:13-16)
4. CAUSE: “By this is love perfected with us, so that we may have confidence for the day of judgment, because as he is so also are we in this world.” (4:17)
5. EFFECT: “There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear. For fear has to do with punishment, and whoever fears has not been perfected in love. We love because he first loved us. If anyone says, ‘I love God,’ and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen. And this commandment we have from him: whoever loves God must also love his brother.” (4:18-21)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “If we are willing to be channels through which God’s love flows to others, there need be no limit to the fullness of that holy current. In humility, selflessness, and gentleness, it will become perfected. The vessel placed beneath the waterfall is filled to overflowing.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

1 John 5, I. Overcoming the World; II. Testimony Concerning the Son of God; III. That You May Know

I. KEY TEXT (Overcoming the World): “Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ has been born of God, and everyone who loves the Father loves whoever has been of him.” (5:1)
A. INFERENCE: “By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God and obey his commandments.” (5:2)
1. FINDINGS: “For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome.” (5:3)
2. CRITERIA: “For everyone who has been born of God overcomes the world.” (5:4)
3. CONDITION: “And this is the victory that has overcome the world–our faith.” (5:4)
4. CAUSE: “Who is it that overcomes the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God.” (5:5)
5. EFFECT: Peter, James, and John witnessed Jesus’ transfiguration, crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Trust the witnesses.

II. KEY TEXT (Testimony Concerning the Son of God): “This is he who came by water and blood–Jesus Christ; not by the water only but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth.” (5:6)
A. INFERENCE: “For there are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and these three agree.” (5:7-8)
1. FINDINGS: “If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater, for this is the testimony of God that he has borne concerning his Son. Whoever believes in the Son of God has the testimony in himself. Whoever does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed in the testimony that God has borne concerning his Son.” (5:9-10)
2. CRITERIA: “And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.” (5:11)
3. CONDITION: “Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life.” (5:12)
4. CAUSE: “It is in vain for a man to plead that he believes the testimony of God in other things, while he rejects it in this. He that refuses to trust and honor Christ as the Son of God, who disdains to submit to his teaching as Prophet, to rely on his atonement and intercession as High Priest, or to obey him as King, is dead in sin, under condemnation; nor will any outward morality, learning, forms, notions, or confidences avail him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “God’s life in the soul also manifests itself in our faith; and as faith is the substance of the unseen and eternal world, it overcomes the fascination and glamour of this transient scene.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let your faith entwine around the risen Lord and you will be weaned from all else. Jesus must become all-in-all to you, else you will miss the crown!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (That You May Know): “I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God that you may know that you have eternal life.” (5:13)
A. INFERENCE: “And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us.” (5:14)
1. FINDINGS: “And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests that we have asked of him.” (5:15)
2. CRITERIA: “If anyone sees his brother committing a sin not leading to death, he shall ask, and God will give him life–to those who commit sins that do not lead to death. There is sin that leads to death; I do not say that one should pray for that. All wrongdoing is sin, but there is sin that does not lead to death.” (5:16-17)
3. CONDITION: “We know that everyone who has been born of God does not keep on sinning, but he who was born of God protects him, and the evil one does not touch him.” (5:18)
4. CAUSE: “We know that we are from God, and the whole world lies in the power of the evil one.” (5:19)
5. EFFECT: “And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.” (5:20)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Little children, keep yourselves from idols.” (5:21)

2 John 1, I. Greeting and Walking in Truth and Love; II. Final Greetings

I. KEY TEXT (Greeting and Walking in Truth and Love): “The elder to the elect lady and her children, whom I love in truth, and not only I but also all who know the truth, because of the truth that abides in us and will be with us forever: Grace, mercy, and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from Jesus Christ the Father’s Son, in truth and love.” (1:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “I rejoiced greatly to find some of your children walking in the truth, just as we were commanded by the Father.” (1:4)
1. FINDINGS: “And now I ask you, dear lady–not as though I were writing you a new commandment, but the one we have had from the beginning–that we love on another.” (1:5)
2. CRITERIA: “And this is love, that we walk according to his commandments; this is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning, so that you should walk in it.” (1:6)
3. CONDITION: “For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh. Such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist.” (1:7)
4. CAUSE: “Watch yourselves, so that you may not lose what we have worked for, but may win a full reward. Everyone who goes on ahead and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God.” (1:8-9)
5. EFFECT: “Whoever abides in the teaching has both the Father and the Son. If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house or give him any greeting, for whoever greets him takes part in his wicked works.” (1:9-11)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The deceiver and his deceit are described: he brings some error concerning the person or office of the Lord Jesus. Such a one is a deceiver and an antichrist; he deludes souls, and undermines the glory and kingdom of the Lord Christ. Let us not think it strange, that there are deceivers and opposers of the Lord Christ’s name and dignity now, for there were such, even in the apostles’ times.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Final Greeting): “Though I have much to write to you, I would rather not use paper and ink.” (1:12)
A. INFERENCE: “Instead I hope to come to you and talk face to face, . . .” (1:12)
1. FINDINGS: “. . . so that our joy may be complete.” (1:12)
2. CRITERIA: “The letter is to a noble Christian matron, and her children; it is well that the gospel should get among such: some noble persons are called.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Families are to be encouraged and directed in their love and duties at home. Those who love truth and piety in themselves, should love it in others; and the Christians loved this lady, not for her rank, but for her holiness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “And where religion truly dwells, it will abide for ever. From the Divine Persons of the Godhead, the apostle craves grace, Divine favor, and goodwill, the spring of all good things. It is grace indeed that any spiritual blessing should be given to sinful mortals. Mercy, free pardon, and forgiveness; for those already rich in grace, need continual forgiveness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Peace, quietness of spirit, and a clear conscience, in assured reconciliation with God, together with all outward prosperity that is really for good: these are desired in truth and love.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Love one another.

3 John 1, I. Greeting, Support and Opposition, and Final Greeting

I. KEY TEXT (Greeting, Support and Opposition, and Final Greeting): “The elder to the beloved Gaius, whom I love in truth. Beloved, I pray that all may go well with you and that you may be in good health, as it goes well with your soul. For I rejoiced greatly when the brothers came and testified to your truth. I have no greater joy than to hear that my children are walking in the truth.” (1:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “Beloved, it is a faithful thing you do in all your efforts for these brothers, strangers as they are, who testified to your love before the church. You will do well to send them on their journey in a manner worthy of God. For they have gone out for the sake of the name, accepting nothing from the Gentiles. Therefore we ought to support people like these, that we may be fellow workers for the truth.” (1:5-8)
1. FINDINGS: “I have written something to the church, but Diotrephes, who likes to put himself first, does not acknowledge our authority. So if I come, I will bring up what he is doing, talking wicked nonsense against us. And not content with that, he refuses to welcome the brothers, and also stops those who want to and puts them out of the church.” (1:9-10)
2. CRITERIA: “Beloved, do not imitate evil but imitate good. Whoever does good is from God; whoever does evil has not seen God.” (1:11)
3. CONDITION: “Demetrius has received a good testimony from everyone, and from the truth itself. We also add our testimony, and you know that our testimony is true.” (1:12)
4. CAUSE: “I had much to write to you, but I would rather not write with pen and ink. I hope to see you soon, and we will talk face to face.” (1:13-14)
5. EFFECT: “Peace be to you. The friends greet you. Greet the friends, every one of them.” (1:15)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Christians should consider not only what they must do, but what they may do; and should do even the common actions of life, and of goodwill, after a godly sort, serving God therein, and designing his glory. Those who freely make known Christ’s gospel, should be helped by others to whom God gives the means. Those who cannot themselves proclaim it, may yet receive, help, and countenance those who do so.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Jude:1, I. Greeting and Judgment on False Teachers; II. A Call to Persevere

I. KEY TEXT (Greeting and Judgment on False Teachers): “Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James, To those who are called, beloved in God the Father and kept for Jesus Christ: May mercy, peace, and love be multiplied to you.” (1:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “Beloved, although I was very eager to write to you abut our common salvation, I found it necessary to write appealing to you to contend for the faith that was once for all delivered to the saints. For certain people have crept in unnoticed who long ago were designated for this condemnation, ungodly people, who pervert the grace of our God into sensuality and deny our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ.” (1:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day–just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire. Yet in a like manner these people also, relying on their dreams, defile the flesh, reject authority, and blaspheme the glorious ones. But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said, ‘The Lord rebuke you.’ But these people blaspheme all that they do not understand, and they are destroyed by all that they, like unreasoning animals, understand instinctively.” (1:5-10)
2. CRITERIA: “Woe to them! For they walked in the way of Cain and abandoned themselves for the sake of gain to Balaam’s error and perished in Korah’s rebellion.” (1:11)
3. CONDITION: “These are hidden reefs at your love feasts, as they feast with you without fear, shepherds feeding themselves; waterless clouds, swept along by winds; fruitless trees in late autumn, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved forever.” (1:12-13)
4. CAUSE: “It was also about these that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying ‘Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousand of his holy ones, to execute judgment on all and to convict all the ungodly of all their deeds of ungodliness that they have committed in such an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.’” (1:14-16)
5. EFFECT: “The apostle exhorts to steadfastness in the faith. (1:1-4) The danger of being infected by false professors, and the dreadful punishment which shall be inflicted on them and their followers. (1:5-7)” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary) Many evil doctrines and practices were intruding into the Church. Certain persons had crept in, who quoted the mercy of God as an excuse for immorality and practically disowned the teachings of the Lord Jesus. (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us not trust in ourselves, nor in our stock of grace already received, but in him, and in him alone. The mercy of God is the spring and fountain of all the good we have or hope for; mercy, not only to the miserable, but to the guilty.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary) Let us also keep ourselves in the love of God, Jud_1:21. It is much easier to live consistently in hours of storm than in hours of ease. (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (A Call to Persevere and Doxology): “But you must remember, beloved, the predictions of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ. They said to you, ‘In the last time there will be scoffers, following their own ungodly passions.’” (1:17-18)
A. INFERENCE: “It is these who cause divisions, worldly people, devoid of the Spirit.” (1:19)
1. FINDINGS: “But you, beloved, building yourselves up in your most holy faith and praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that leads to eternal life.” (1:20-21)
2. CRITERIA: “And have mercy on those who doubt; save others by snatching them out of the fire; to others show mercy with fear, hating even the garment stained by the flesh. Now to him who is able to keep you from stumbling and to present you blameless before the presence of his glory with great joy, to the only God, our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion, and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen.” (1:22-25)
3. CONDITION: “Sensual men separate from Christ, and his church, and join themselves to the devil, the world, and the flesh, by ungodly and sinful practices. That is infinitely worse than to separate from any branch of the visible church on account of opinions, or modes and circumstances of outward government or worship. Sensual men have not the spirit of holiness, which whoever has not, does not belong to Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Let us be warned against drifting back from our first faith. Let us take heed from the fate of fallen angels, of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Cain and Balaam, of Korah and others. Let us watch and pray and earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints, Jude 1:3, bearing it through the world as the pilgrim host bore the sacred vessels in the days of Ezra. See: Ezr. 8:28.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The four exquisite admonitions of Jude 1:20-21 are worth pondering. (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Keep yourselves in the main current of God’s love. Build your character after the likeness of Christ. Pray in the Holy Spirit; keep at the oriel window of hope. Christ is able to keep, and when at last we are presented by Him to the Father, we shall realize how much we owe Him.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

Revelation:1:1, I. Prologue, II. Greeting to the Seven Churches, III. Vision of the Son of Man

I. KEY TEXT (Prologue): “The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known my sending his angel to his servant John, who bore witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.” (1:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear, and who keep what is written in it, . . .” (1:3)
1. FINDINGS: “. . . for the time is near.” (1:3)
2. CRITERIA: “The Bible begins with Paradise LOST, and closes with Paradise REGAINED.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
3. CONDITION: “We should expect this last prophecy to give us the final word as to: 1. the church; 2. Israel; and 3. the Nations.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto Him, to show unto His servants things which must shortly come to pass.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “The Author was the Lord Jesus Himself; the Apostle was only a scribe recording what was revealed to him by an angel. See: Rev. 1:1; 22:8.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Do not add unto or take from it.” (Rev. 22:8-9) No one can understand the Book of Revelation who does not understand the Book of Daniel. (Dan. 12:4, 9) Here the writer of the Book of Revelation was told to ‘seal not’ the sayings of the Book of Revelation. (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

II. KEY TEXT (Greeting to the Seven Churches): “John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth.” (1:4-5)
A. INFERENCE: “To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood and made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” (1:5-6)
1. FINDINGS: “Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him. Even so. Amen.” (1:7)
2. CRITERIA: “’I am the Alpha and the Omega,’ says the Lord God, ‘who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.’” (1:8)
3. CONDITION: “To him we owe the knowledge of what we are to expect from God, and what he expects from us. The subject of this revelation was, the things that must shortly come to pass.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Even the mysteries and difficulties of this book are united with discoveries of God, suited to impress the mind with awe, and to purify the soul of the reader, though he may not discern the prophetic meaning. (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “No part of Scripture more fully states the gospel, and warns against the evil of sin.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Know that the book begins and ends by stressing Christ’s return for his servants (1:1, 3; 22:3, 6–7, 10, 12, 20). (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Vision of the Son of Man): “I John, your brother and partner in the tribulation and the kingdom and the patient endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.” (1:9)
A. INFERENCE: “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet saying, ‘Write what you see in a book and send it to the seven churches, to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea.’” (1:10-11)
1. FINDINGS: “Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the lampstands one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash around his chest. The hairs of his head were white, like white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet were like burnished bronze, refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. In his right hand he held seven stars, from his mouth came a sharp two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength.” (1:12-16)
2. CRITERIA: “When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, ‘Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” (1:17-18)
3. CONDITION: “’Write therefore the things that you have seen, those that are and those that are to take place after this.” (1:19)
4. CAUSE: “As for the mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands, the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.’” (1:20)
5. EFFECT: “The churches receive their light from Christ and the gospel, and hold it forth to others. They are golden candlesticks; they should be precious and pure; not only the ministers, but the members of the churches; their light should so shine before men, as to engage others to give glory to God.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us listen to the voice of Christ, and receive the tokens of his love, for what can he withhold from those for whose sins he has died? May we then obey his word, and give up ourselves wholly to him who directs all things aright.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Revelation 2:1, I. To the Church in Ephesus; II. To the Church in Smyrna; III. To the Church in Pergamum; IV. To the Church in Thyatira

I. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Ephesus): “To the angel of the church in Ephesus write: ‘The words of him who holds the seven stars in his right hand, who walks among the seven golden lampstands.” (2:1)
A. INFERENCE: “’I know your works, your toil and your patient endurance, and how you cannot bear with those who are evil, but have tested those who call themselves apostles and are not, and found them to be false.” (2:2)
1. FINDINGS: “I know you are enduring patiently and bearing up for my name’s sake, and you have not grown weary. But I have this against you, that you have abandoned the love you had at first. Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent, and do the works you did at first. If not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place, unless you repent.” (2:3-5)
2. CRITERIA: “Yet this you have: you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” (2:6-7)
3. CONDITION: “To the one who conquers I will grant to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.’” (2:7)
4. CAUSE: “These churches were in such different states as to purity of doctrine and the power of godliness, that the words of Christ to them will always suit the cases of other churches, and professors.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ knows and observes their state; though in heaven, yet he walks in the midst of his churches on earth, observing what is wrong in them, and what they want. The church of Ephesus is commended for diligence in duty. Christ keeps an account of every hour’s work his servants do for him, and their labor shall not be in vain in the Lord.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Surely this mention in Scripture, of Christians forsaking their first love, reproves those who speak of it with carelessness, and thus try to excuse indifference and sloth in themselves and others; our Savior considers this indifference as sinful. They must repent: they must be grieved and ashamed for their sinful declining, and humbly confess it in the sight of God.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Smyrna): “And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: ‘The words of the first and the last, who died and came to life.” (2:8)
A. INFERENCE: “’I know your tribulation and your poverty (but you are rich) and slander of those who say that they are Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.” (2:9)
1. FINDINGS: “Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have tribulation. Be faithful unto death, and I will give you the crown of life.” (2:10)
2. CRITERIA: “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” (2:11)
3. CONDITION: “The one who conquers will not be hurt by the second death.’” (2:11)
4. CAUSE: “Observe, the sureness of the reward; “I will give thee:” they shall have the reward from Christ’s own hand. Also, how suitable it is; “a crown of life:” the life worn out in his service, or laid down in his cause, shall be rewarded with a much better life, which shall be eternal.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The second death is unspeakably worse than the first death, both in the agonies of it, and as it is eternal death: it is indeed awful to die, and to be always dying. If a man is kept from the second death and wrath to come, he may patiently endure whatever he meets with in this world.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The tribulation and patience of Jesus are essential conditions of His Kingdom. We cannot exert the divine energies of the latter, unless we are willing to take our share of the former.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Pergamum): “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘The words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword.” (2:12)
A. INFERENCE: “I know where you dwell, where Satan’s throne is. Yet you hold fast my name, and you did not deny my faith even in the days of Antipas my faithful witness, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells.” (2:13)
1. FINDINGS: “But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teachings of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality. So also you have some who hold the teaching of the Nicolaitans.” (2:14-15)
2. CRITERIA: “Therefore repent. If not, I will come to you soon and war against them with the sword of my mouth.” (2:16)
3. CONDITION: “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers I will give some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, with a new name written on the stone that no one knows except the one who receives it.’” (2:17)
4. CAUSE: “Christ commends their steadfastness, but reproves their sinful failures. A wrong view of gospel doctrine and Christian liberty, was a root of bitterness from which evil practices grew.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The church became rich and powerful where a condition of affairs would develop that would usher in the Millennium without the return of Christ.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Repent, return to sound doctrine.” (2:16)

II. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Thyatira): “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The words of the Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like burnished bronze.” (2:18)
A. INFERENCE: “I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first.” (2:19)
1. FINDINGS: “But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrifice to idols. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality.” (2:20-21)
2. CRITERIA: “Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works, and I will strike her children dead.” (2:22-23)
3. CONDITION: “And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works.” (2:23)
4. CAUSE: “But to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not hold this teaching, who have not learned what some call the deep things of Satan, to you I say, I do not lay on you any other burden. Only hold fast what you have until I come.” (2:24-25)
5. EFFECT: “The one who conquers and who keeps my works until the end, to him I will give authority over the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen post are broken in pieces, even as I myself have received authority from my Father. And I will give him the morning star. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’” (2:26-29)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Abolish false doctrine, return to sound doctrine.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 3:1, I. To the Church in Sardis; II. To the Church in Philadelphia; III. To the Church in Laodicea

I. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Sardis): “And to the angel of the church in Sardis write: ‘The words of him who has seven spirits of God and the seven stars.” (3:1)
A. INFERENCE: “’I know your works. You have the reputation of being alive, but you are dead.” (3:1)
1. FINDINGS: “Wake up, and strengthen what remains and is about to die, for I have not found your works complete in the sight of my God.” (3:2)
2. CRITERIA: “Remember, then, what you received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If you will not wake up, I will come like a thief, and you will not know at what hour I will come against you.” (3:3)
3. CONDITION: “Yet you have still a few names in Sardis, people who have not soiled their garments, and they will walk with me in white, for they are worthy.” (3:4)
4. CAUSE: “The one who conquers will be clothed thus in white garments, and I will never blot his name out of the book of life.” (3:5)
5. EFFECT: “I will confess his name before my Father and before his angels. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’” (3:6)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Our Lord called upon them (and us) to be watchful against their enemies, and to be active and earnest in their duties; and to endeavor, in dependence on the grace of the Holy Spirit, to revive and strengthen the faith and spiritual affections of those yet alive to God, though in a declining state.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Philadelphia): “And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens.” (3:7)
A. INFERENCE: “I know your works. Behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one is able to shut. I know that you have but little power, and yet you have kept my word and have not denied my name.” (3:8)
1. FINDINGS: “Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie–behold, I will make them come and bow down before our feet and they will learn that I have loved you. Because you have kept my word about patient endurance, I will keep you from the hour of trial that is coming on the whole world, to try those who dwell on the earth.” (3:9-10)
2. CRITERIA: “I am coming soon. Hold fast what you have, so that no one may seize your crown. The one who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God. Never shall he go out of it, and I will write on him the name of my God, and the names of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down from my God out of heaven, and my own new name. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” (3:11-13)
3. CONDITION: “A favored church. It had a little strength. It had set before it an open door that no man could shut. It was to be kept from the Hour of Temptation (Tribulation).” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “It was the church of brotherly love and well describes their charity and brotherly fellowship.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “The promise is that the ‘Philadelphia Church’ will not pass through the Tribulation. Is not this additional proof that the Church shall be ‘caught out’ before the Tribulation?” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “In seeking a revival in our own souls, or the souls of others, it is needful to compare what we profess with the manner in which we go on, that we may be humbled and quickened to hold fast that which remains.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (To the Church in Laodicea): “And to the angel of the church in Laodicea write: ‘The words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s creation.” (3:14)
A. INFERENCE: “I know your works: you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were either cold or hot! So, because you lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth.” (3:15-16)
1. FINDINGS: “For you say, I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing, not realizing that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked. I counsel you to buy from me gold refined by fire, so that you may be rich, and white garments so that you may clothe yourself and the shame of your nakedness may not be seen, and salve to anoint your eyes, so that you may see.” (3:17-18)
2. CRITERIA: “Those whom I love, I reprove and discipline, so be zealous and repent.” (3:19)
3. CONDITION: “Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he with me.” (3:20)
4. CAUSE: “The one who conquers, I will grant him to sit with me on my throne, as I also conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.” (3:21)
5. EFFECT: “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” (3:22)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “How careful should we be not to cheat our owns souls! There are many in hell, who once thought themselves far in the way to heaven. Let us beg of God that we may not be left to flatter and deceive ourselves.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Week #155; Wed, Dec 16: Revelation 4–14

Week #155; Wed, Dec 16: Revelation 4:1–14:20

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Revelation 4:1; I. The Throne in Heaven

I. KEY TEXT (The Throne in Heaven): “After this I looked, and behold, a door standing open in heaven! And the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet, said, ‘Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.’” (4:1)
A. INFERENCE: “At once I was in the Spirit, and behold, a throne stood in heaven, with one seated on the throne.” (4:2) “The occupant of the Throne was no other than God Himself.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
1. FINDINGS: “And he who sat there had the appearance of jasper and carnelian, and around the throne was a rainbow that had the appearance of an emerald. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones were twenty-four elders, clothed in white garments, with golden crowns on their heads. From the throne came flashes of lightning, and rumblings and peals of thunder, and before the throne were burning seven torches of fire, which are the seven spirits of God, and before the throne there was as it were a sea of glass, like crystal.” (4:3-6)
2. CRITERIA: “And around the throne, on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: the first living creature like a lion, the second living creature like an ox the third living creature with the face of a man, and the fourth living creature like an eagle in flight. And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and within, and day and night they never cease to say, ‘Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!’” (4:6-8)
3. CONDITION: “And whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to him who is seated on the throne, who lives forever and ever, the twenty-four elders fall down before him who is seated on the throne and worship him who lives forever and ever. They cast their crowns before the throne, saying, ‘Worthy are you, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created.” (9-11)
4. CAUSE: “It appears that the statement ‘After this I looked, . . .’ (4:1) follows the ‘Vision of the Son of Man in the midst of the Seven Lamp-stands (1:9-20)’ and ‘the things which are messages to the seven churches (2:1-28 and 3:1-22).’ This chapter dwells on the things which are hereafter until chapter 19. So, chapter 4 begins a vision of the ‘Glorified Church’ with the Lord after it has been caught out (1 Thess. 4:13-17).” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “Else we have no ‘prophetic view’ of the Church during that period, for she disappears from the earth at the close of chapter three, and is not seen again until she reappears with her Lord in chapter nineteen.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Retain this: that chapter 4 describes events after the ‘Rapture’ and includes the seven seals, trumpets, personages, vials, dooms, and new things hereafter.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 5:1; I. The Scroll and the Lamb

I. KEY TEXT (The Scroll and the Lamb): “Then I saw in the right hand of him who was seated on the throne a scroll written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, ‘Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?’” (5:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “And no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (5:3)
1. FINDINGS: “And one of the elders said to me, ‘Weep no more; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.” (5:4)
2. CRITERIA: “And between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders I saw a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain, with seven horns and with seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.” (5:5-6)
3. CONDITION: “And he went and took the scroll from the right hand of him who was seated on the throne. And when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each holding a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. And they sang a new song, saying, ‘Worthy are you to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slain, and by your blood you ransomed people for God from every tribe and language and people and nation, and you have made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.’” (5:7-10)
4. CAUSE: “Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders of the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, ‘Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!” (5:11-12)
5. EFFECT: “And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, ‘To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!’ And the four living creatures said, ‘Amen!’ and the elders fell down and worshiped.” (5:13-14)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Retain this, the portion of the Book from chapter three to the end of chapter nineteen is largely made up of symbols taken from the Old Testament, as the Tabernacle, Ark of the Covenant, Altar, Censer, Elders, Cherubim, Seals, Trumpets, Plagues, etc., is conclusive evidence that we are here back on Jewish ground, and that the Parenthetical Dispensation of the Church is complete, and that the last or ‘Seventieth Week’ of Daniel’s ‘Seventy Weeks’ is in course of fulfilment (a knowledge of Daniel is needed).” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 6:1; I. The Seven Seals

I. KEY TEXT (The Seven Seals): “Now I watched when the Lamb (Jesus) opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures say with a voice like thunder, ‘Come!’ And I looked, and behold, a white horse! And its rider had a bow, and a crown was given to him, and he came out conquering, and to conquer. When he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, ‘Come!’ And out came another horse, bright red. Its rider was permitted to take peace from the earth, so that people should slay one another, and he was given a great sword. When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature say, ‘Come! And I looked, and behold, a black horse! And its rider had a pair of scales in his hand. And I heard what seemed to be a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, ‘A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius, and do not harm the oil and wine! When he opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, ‘Come!’ And I looked, and behold, a pale horse! And its rider’s name was Death, and Hades followed him. And they were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by wild beasts of the earth. When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the witness they had borne. They cried out with a loud voice, ‘O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth? Then they were each given a white robe and told to rest a little longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brothers should be complete, who were to be killed as they themselves had been. When he opened the sixth seal, I looked and behold, there was a great earthquake and the sun became black as sackcloth, the moon became like blood, and the stars of the sky fell to the earth as the fig tree sheds its winter fruit when shaken by a gale.” (6:1-13)
A. INFERENCE: “The sky vanished like a scroll that is being rolled up, and every mountain and island was removed from its place.” (6:14)
1. FINDINGS: “Then the kings of the earth and the great ones and the generals and the rich and the powerful and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains, calling to the mountains and rocks, ‘Fall on us and hide us from the face of him who is seated on the throne (God Himself) and from the wrath of the Lamb (Jesus), for the great day of their wrath has come, and who can stand?” (6:15-17)
2. CRITERIA: “This is the ‘Due Time,’ when the ‘Man’ Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ‘Ransom’ (on the Cross) for the redemption of the lost inheritance, will be testified to before the Throne of God, by redeeming mankind, angels, and every creature in Heaven and Earth, and under the Earth. 1 Timothy 2:5-66; Rev. 5:8-14.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
3. CONDITION: “When the Lamb leaves the Throne to take the Book, His Mediatorial Work ceases, and His Redemptive Work begins.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “When our ‘Kinsman Redeemer’ is handed the ‘Book,’ the ‘Title Deed’ to the ‘Purchased Possession,’ He has the right to break its seals, and claim the ‘Inheritance,’ and dispossess the present claimant Satan.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “This He will immediately proceed to do, as He breaks the seals. Satan is not evicted at once. He contests the claim and it is only after a prolonged conflict that he is finally dispossessed and cast into the Lake of Fire.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Retain this, as the ‘Seals’ are broken, certain things happened. They doubtless were preliminary to the Lamb’s taking possession of the Purchased Possession. It is not until chapter 10:1-6, that Christ, as the ‘Mighty Angel,’ puts His right foot upon the sea, and His left foot on the earth, and cries–“There shall be time no longer,’ that is ‘No Longer Delay,’ that he takes formal possession, but as the claim is disputed further steps, as we shall see (chapter 7 pertains), are necessary to secure possession. Events recorded in Rev. 6:1 to Rev. 19:21, are connected with the last, or ‘Seventieth Week,” of Daniel’s ‘Seventy Weeks,’ and it is necessary that a review of the Book of Daniel be conducted if needed to facilitate greater understanding.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 7:1, I. The 144,000 of Israel Sealed; II. A Great Multitude from Every Nation

I. KEY TEXT (The 144,000 of Israel Sealed): “After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, that no wind might blow on earth or sea or against any tree.” (7:1)
A. INFERENCE: “Then I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, with the seal of the living God, and he called with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given power to harm earth and sea, saying, ‘Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees, until we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads.’” (7:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “And I heard the number of the sealed, 144,000, sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel: 12,000 for the tribe of Judah were sealed, 12,000 from the tribe of Reuben, 12,000 from the tribe of Gad, 12,000 from the tribe of Asher, 12,000 from the tribe of Naphtali, 12,000 from the tribe of Manasseh, 12,000 from the tribe of Simeon, 12,000 from the tribe of Levi, 12,000 from the tribe of Issachar, 12,000 from the tribe of Zebulun, 12,000 from the tribe of Joseph, 12,000 from the tribe of Benjamin were sealed.” (7:4-8) (Note that the tribes of Dan and Ephraim are not listed, but Joseph and Levi are listed. This is because the man, woman, or family, or tribe that introduces idolatry into Israel, should have their or its name ‘blotted out’ from under heaven, and be separated out of the Tribes of Israel. This is just what the Tribes of Dan and Ephraim were guilty of when they permitted Jeroboam to set up ‘Golden calves’ to be worshipped, one at Dan in the ‘Tribe of Dan, ‘ and the other at Bethel in the ‘Tribe of Ephraim.’ These tribes must pass through the Great Tribulation unprotected by sealing.) (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
2. CRITERIA: “The definiteness of the number sealed indicates the perfectness and greatness of this first fruit sheaf of souls. If the first sheaf be so full and heavy, what will not the harvest be!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Beyond human count in number; representing every country under heaven; spotless in character; victorious in their conflict with evil; ascribing all glory to the Lamb as the result of His travail of soul.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “In the figurative language of Scripture, the blowing of the four winds together, means a dreadful and general destruction. But the destruction is delayed. Seals were used to mark for each person his own possessions. This mark is the witness of the Holy Ghost, printed in the hearts of believers. And the Lord would not suffer his people to be afflicted before they were marked, that they might be prepared against all conflicts.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “And, observe, of those who are thus sealed by the Spirit, the seal must be on the forehead, plainly to be seen alike by friends and foes, but not by the believer himself, except as he looks steadfastly in the glass of God’s word. The number of those who were sealed, may be understood to stand for the remnant of people which God reserved. Though the church of God is but a little flock, in comparison with the wicked world, yet it is a society really large, and to be still more enlarged. Here the universal church is figured under the type of Israel.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Retain this, SIX of the seven Seals have been opened by the “Lamb,” who is likewise the “Lion of the tribe of Judah.” They have dealt, in brief but pregnant sentences, with the whole history of the Church and of the world throughout the Christian age. No details of history have indeed been spoken of, no particular wars, or famines, or pestilences, or slaughters, or preservations of the saints. Everything has been described in the most general terms. We have been invited to think only of the principles of the Divine government, but of these as the most sublime and, according to our own state of mind, the most alarming or the most consolatory principles that can engage the attention of men.” (Expositor’s Bible Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (A Great Multitude from Every Nation): “After this I looked, and behold, a great multitude that no one could number, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands, and crying out with a loud voice, ‘Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!” (7:9-10)
A. INFERENCE: “And all the angels were standing around the throne, and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, saying, ‘Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God forever and ever! Amen.’” (7:11-12)
1. FINDINGS: “Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, ‘Who are these, clothed in white robes, and from where have they come?’ I said to him, ‘Sir, you know.’ And he said to me, ‘These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple; and he who sits on the throne will shelter them with his presence. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst anymore; the sun shall not strike them, nor any scorching heat. For the Lamb in the midst of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.’” (7:13-17)
2. CRITERIA: “They are a vast multitude saved by the preaching of the ‘Gospel of the Kingdom (by the Jews).’ Those who are converted (and transformed) during the Tribulation period will be converted by the Holy Spirit. The Jews will be converted as a Nation in one day.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
3. CONDITION: “The ‘Blood Washed Multitude’ appear to be Gentiles that could not serve in an earthly Jewish Temple; while the New Jerusalem is not heaven, there is a Temple in Heaven. (11:19; 15:5-8; and 16:1)” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “They serve God day and night in the new ‘Millennial Temple’ on the earth because there is no day or night or Temple in Heaven. While that is true of the Holy City, New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:22-25), it is not true of Heaven, for they are not the same.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “The sight of this ‘Blood Washed Multitude’ will so thrill and rejoice the Angelic Hosts that they will fall upon their faces and worship God, saying, ‘Amen: Blessing, and Glory, and Wisdom, and Thanksgiving, and Honor, and Power, and Might, be unto our God forever and ever. Amen.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “To Him may all his people come; from him they receive every needed grace; and to him let them offer all praise and glory.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Revelation 8:1, I. The Seventh Seal and the Golden Censer; II. The Seven Trumpets

I. KEY TEXT (The Seventh Seal and the Golden Censer): “When the Lamb opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. Then I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them.” (8:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne, and the smoke of he incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel.” (8:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “Then the angel took the censer and filled it with fire from the altar and threw it on the earth, and there were peals of thunder, rumblings, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.” (8:5)
2. CRITERIA: “The ‘Seventh Seal’ includes all that happens during the sounding of the ‘Trumpets,’ and the pouring out of the ‘Vials,’ and so extends down to the ushering in of the Millennium.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
3. CONDITION: “The Lord Jesus is the High Priest of the church, having a golden censer, and much incense, fullness of merit in his own glorious person. Would that men studied to know the fullness that is in Christ, and endeavored to be acquainted with his excellency. Would that they were truly persuaded that Christ has such an office as that of Intercessor, which he now performs with deep sympathy.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “No prayers, thus recommended, was ever denied hearing and acceptance. These prayers, thus accepted in heaven, produced great changes upon earth.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The Christian worship and religion, pure and heavenly in its origin and nature, when sent down to earth and conflicting with the passions and worldly projects of sinful men, produced remarkable tumults, here set forth in prophetical language, as our Lord himself declared, Luke 12:49.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Pray on, believer, though your voice be feeble, and so much imperfection mingles with your efforts to serve God. The incense of Christ’s intercession is fragrant enough to make even you acceptable.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Seven Trumpets): “Now the seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared to blow them.” (8:6)
A. INFERENCE: “The first angel blew his trumpet, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and these were thrown upon the earth. And a third of the earth was burned up, and all green grass was burned up. The second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain, burning with fire, was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood. A third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed. The third angel blew his trumpet, and a great star fell from heaven, blazing like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many people died from the water, because it had been made bitter. The fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of their light might be darkened, and a third of the day might be kept from shining, and likewise a third of the night.” (8:7-12)
1. FINDINGS: “Then I looked, and I heard an eagle crying with a loud voice as it flew directly overhead, “Woe, woe, woe to those who dwell on the earth, at the blasts of the other trumpets that the three angels are about to blow!” (8:13)
2. CRITERIA: “There is no need to spiritualize this, It means just what it says. These things have happened before why not again (i.e., Egypt)?” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
3. CONDITION: “The difference between this Egyptian Plague, and the Plague of the First Trumpet, is that the situation will be reversed. The children of Israel escaped, now they will suffer. The Second Trumpet is on the sea (possibly the Mediterranean Sea) due to a meteor or volcanic activity. The Third Trumpet initiated the fall of a great burning star–Wormwood. The Fourth Trumpet is like the Sixth Seal. These are some of the ‘Signs” spoken of by Christ, in Luke’s Gospel, that shall precede His Second Coming. Luke 21:25-28” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “The Judgments of Egypt were directed against Pharaoh, the Judgments of the Tribulation Period will be directed against Israel.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “In Egypt man and beast suffered with vegetation, while only the trees and the green grass will suffer when the First Trumpet sounds, and the hail and fire will be mingled with blood.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Believe literally; if God could make Balaam’s ‘ass’ to speak, He can use an ‘Eagle’ to announce a message.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 9:1, I. Trumpets–continued

I. KEY TEXT (Trumpets–continued): “And the Fifth Angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star fallen from heaven to earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit. He opened the shaft of the bottomless pit, and from the shaft rose smoke like the smoke of a great furnace, and the sun and the air were darkened with the smoke from the shaft.” (9:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “Then from the smoke came locusts on the earth, and they were given power like the power of scorpions of the earth.” (9:3)
1. FINDINGS: “They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads. They were allowed to torment them for five months, but not to kill them, and their torment was like the torment of a scorpion when it stings someone. And in those days people will seek death and will not find it. They will long to die, but death will flee from them.” (9:4-6)
2. CRITERIA: “In appearance the locusts were like horses prepared for battle: on their heads were what looked like crowns of gold; their faces were like human faces, their hair like women’s hair, and their teeth like lion’s teeth; they had breastplates like breastplates of iron, and the noise of their wings was like the noise of many chariots with horses rushing into battle. They have tails and stings like scorpions, and their power to hurt people for five months is in their tails.” (9:7-10)
3. CONDITION: “They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he is called Apollyon (destroyer). The first woe has passed; behold, two woes are still to come.” (9:11-12)
4. CAUSE: “Then the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar before God, saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, ‘Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates.’ So the four angels, who had been prepared for the hour, the day, the month, and the year, were release to kill a third of mankind.” (9:13-16)
5. EFFECT: “The number of mounted troops was twice ten thousand times ten thousand; I heard their number. And this is how I saw the horses in my vision and those who rode them: they wore breastplates the color of fire and of sapphire and of sulfur, and the heads of the horses were like lions’ heads, and fire and smoke and sulfur came out of their mouths. By these three plagues a third of mankind was killed, by the fire and smoke and sulfur coming out of their mouths. For the power of the horses is in their mouths and in their tails, for their tails are like serpents with heads, and by means of them they wound. The rest of mankind, who were not killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands nor give up worshiping demons and idols of gold and silver and bronze and stone and wood, which cannot see or hear or walk, nor did they repent of their murders or their sorceries or their sexual immorality or their thefts.” (9:17-21)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “A 200,000,000 army is a supernatural army that is part of Satan’s force.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

Revelation 10:1, I. The Angel and the Little Scroll

I. KEY TEXT (The Angel and the Little Scroll): “Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head, and his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire. He had a little scroll open in his hand. And he set his right foot on the sea, and his left foot on the land, and called out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring. When he called out, the seven thunders sounded.” (10:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “And when the seven thunders had sounded, I was about to write, but I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Seal up what the seven thunders have said, and do not write it down.’” (10:4)
1. FINDINGS: “And the angel whom I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised his right hand to heaven and swore by him who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, that there would be no more delay, but that in the days of the trumpet call to be sounded by the seventh angel, the mystery of God would be fulfilled, just as he announced to his servants the prophets.” (10:5-7)
2. CRITERIA: “Then the voice that I had heard from heaven spoke to me again, saying, ‘Go, take the scroll that is open in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.’” (10:8)
3. CONDITION: “So I went to the angel and told him to give me the little scroll. And he said to me, ‘Take and eat it; it will make your stomach bitter, but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.’” (10:9)
4. CAUSE: “And I took the little scroll from the hand of the angel and ate it.” (10:10)
5. EFFECT: “It was sweet as honey in my mouth, but when I had eaten it my stomach was made bitter. As I was told, ‘You must again prophesy about many peoples and nations and languages and kings.’” (10:10-11)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Most men feel pleasure in looking into future events, and all good men like to receive a word from God. But when this book of prophecy was thoroughly digested by the apostle, the contents would be bitter; there were things so awful and terrible, such grievous persecutions of the people of God, such desolations in the earth, that the foresight and foreknowledge of them would be painful to his mind. Let us seek to be taught by Christ, and to obey his orders; daily meditating on his word, that it may nourish our souls; and then declaring it according to our several stations.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Revelation:11:1, I. The Two Witnesses II. The Seventh Trumpet

I. KEY TEXT (The Two Witnesses): “Then I was given a measuring rod like a staff, and I was told, ‘Rise and measure the temple of God and the altar and those who worship there, but do not measure the court outside the temple; leave that out, for it is given over to the nations and they will trample the holy city for forty-two months (3 1/2 years). And I will grant authority to my two witnesses and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.” (11:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth. And if anyone would harm them, fire pours from their mouth and consumes their foes. If anyone would harm them, this is how he is doomed to be killed.” (11:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “They have the power to shut the sky, that no rain may fall during the days of their prophesying, and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague, as often as they desire.” (11:6)
2. CRITERIA: “And when they have finished their testimony, the beast that rises from the bottomless pit will make war on them and conquer them and kill them, and their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city that symbolically is called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was crucified.” (11:8)
3. CONDITION: “For three and a half days some from the peoples and the tribes and languages and nations will gaze at their dead bodies and refuse to let them be placed in a tomb, and those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and make merry and exchange presents, because these two prophets had been a torment to those who dwell on the earth. But after the three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood up on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them.” (11:9-11)
4. CAUSE: “Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, ‘Come up here!’ And they went up to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies watched them.” (11:12)
5. EFFECT: “And at that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven. The second woe has passed; behold, the third woe is soon to come.” (11:13-14)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “God still continues to graciously offer salvation through men who genuinely mourn the evil state of the earth. The months and days mentioned in 11:2–3 may refer to the last three and a half years of the Tribulation. (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary) The two witnesses can be no other than Moses and Elijah. (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)

II. KEY TEXT (The Seventh Trumpet): “Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.’” (11:15)
A. INFERENCE: “And the twenty-four elders who sit on their thrones before God fell on their faces and worshiped God, saying, ‘We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty, who is and who was, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign. The nations raged, but your wrath came, and the time for the dead to be judged, and for rewarding your servants, the prophets and saints, and those who fear your name, both small and great, and for destroying the destroyers of the earth.'” (11:16-18)
1. FINDINGS: “Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, and earthquake, and heavy hail.” (11:19)
2. CRITERIA: “The kingdom is even now Christ’s, but it is hidden, even as He is. One day it will be manifested. For a long time David was the anointed king of Israel, but Saul sat on the throne until the predestined hour came when the tribes of Israel made David their chosen monarch. This surely is a type of that which will one day become apparent to the whole creation. The kingdom of the world will wholly and permanently become Christ’s. Suffering and sorrow will then flee away, as birds of ill omen at dawn. War will cease to the end of the world. The glad populations of mankind will walk in the light of life, and the long night and travail of nature will be ended.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The covenant (11:19) appears to be the archetype of all God’s earthly covenants; it is the eternal covenant that asserts his right as Creator to be obeyed, to judge, and to redeem. (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Revelation 11:18 records different aspects of judgment based upon Christ taking his dominion over the nations. The wicked dead will be judged (cf. 20:11–15); the prophets and Old Testament saints will be rewarded (cf. 20:4–6); and the destroyers of the earth will be destroyed (cf. 19:19–21). (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)
5. EFFECT: ““The kingdom (sovereignty) of (over) the world is our Lord’s and His Christ’s. The kingdoms of the world give way to the kingdom of (over) the world exercised by Christ.” (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “What comfort is derived from this vision of the Ark of God’s Covenant, which abides in the inner sanctuary!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

Revelation 12:1, I. The Woman and the Dragon; II. Satan Thrown Down to Earth

I. KEY TEXT (The Woman and the Dragon): “And a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun (Mary? The Church? and/or Israel per Larkin), with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars (see paragraph VII.E in page 7 of the home page for a presentation (The Star of Bethlehem video) that displays this sign even today).” (12:1)
A. INFERENCE: “She was pregnant and was crying out in birth pains and the agony of giving birth. And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great red dragon, with seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads seven diadems.” (12:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “His tail swept down a third of the stars of heaven and cast them to the earth. And the dragon (Herod?) stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that when she bore her child he might devour it.” (12:4)
2. CRITERIA: “She gave birth to a male child (Christ), one who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron, but her child was caught up to God and to his throne, and the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, in which she is to be nourished for 1,260 days.” (12:5)
3. CONDITION: “As soon as Mary had given birth to our Lord, Herod sought to destroy Him, and this is characteristic of all the ages. But God’s care is always at hand to deliver His own. He has His prepared places, where He hides those who trust in Him. He keeps them in the secret of His pavilion from the strife of men.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Sin has brought conflict, not on our earth only, but throughout the universe; but from the heavenly places it has been driven, and the last stand is made on our earth. Is it not possible that the awful war which has desolated mankind may be one of the last phases of this age-long conflict? There is but one talisman of victory. We overcome only in so far as we take shelter in the blood of the Lamb and wield as our weapon the Word of God.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “To the end there must be war between the seed of the woman and the dragon, and there must be bruising. But the final outcome is sure. As Satan was cast out of heaven, so he shall be cast out of earth, and Christ shall see of the travail of his soul and shall be satisfied.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Revelation 12 presents the persecution of Christians (12:17) by Satan. Its point is to stress the ultimate defeat of the devil and the triumph of faithful Christians (12:10–12). (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Satan Thrown Down to Earth): “Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels fought back, but he was defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world–he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.” (12:7-9)
A. INFERENCE: “And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, ‘Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come, for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God.’” (12:10)
1. FINDINGS: “And they have conquered him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, for they loved not their lives even unto death. Therefore, rejoice, O heavens and you who dwell in them! But woe to you, O earth and sea, for the devil has come down to you in great wrath, because he knows that his time is short!” (12:11-12)
2. CRITERIA: “And when the dragon saw that he had been thrown down to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. But the woman was given the two wings of the great eagle so that she might fly from the serpent into the wilderness, to the place where she is to be nourished for a time, and times, and half a time.” (12:13-14)
3. CONDITION: “The serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, to sweep her away with a flood. But the earth came to the help of the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed the river that the dragon had poured from his mouth. Then the dragon became furious with the woman and went off to make war on the rest of her offspring, on those who keep the commandments of God (Orthodox Jews who observe the Old Testament law) and those who hold to the testimony of Jesus (converted by the preaching of the ‘Gospel of the Kingdom’  by the ‘Two Witnesses.’) And he stood on the sand of the sea.” (12:15-17)
4. CAUSE: “The devil, defeated in his designs upon the church, turns his rage against persons and places.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Being faithful to God and Christ, in doctrine, worship, and practice, exposes to the rage of Satan; and will do so till the last enemy shall be destroyed.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Know that before Lucifer rebelled in heaven, heaven was a pure kingdom. Following his final defeat with another fall into the lake of fire, God will achieve another pure kingdom for eternity. (Addison, Where Will You Be When You Get Where You Are Going?–see references page to this blog)

Revelation 13:1, I. The First Beast; II. The Second Beast

I. KEY TEXT (The first Beast): “And I saw a beast rising out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads, with ten diadems on its horns and blasphemous names on its heads.” (13:1)
A. INFERENCE: “And the beast that I saw was like a leopard; its feet were like a bear’s , and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast.” (13:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “And they worshiped the dragon, for he had given his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, ‘Who is like the beast, and who can fight against it?’” (13:4)
2. CRITERIA: “And the beast was given a mouth uttering haughty and blasphemous words, and it was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. It opened its mouth to utter blasphemies against God, blaspheming his name and his dwelling, that is, those who dwell in heaven.” (13:5-6)
3. CONDITION: “Also it was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. And authority was given it over every tribe and people and language and nation., and all who dwell on earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written before the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who was slain.” (13:7-8)
4. CAUSE: “If anyone has an ear, let him hear: If anyone is to be taken captive, to captivity he goes; if anyone is to be slain with the sword, with the sword must he be slain.” (13:9-10)
5. EFFECT: “Here is a call for the endurance and faith of the saints.” (13:10)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “If you are enduring hatred and persecution, be of good cheer, for your name is written in the Lamb’s book of life, Rev. 13:8. This may well compensate us amid the most violent opposition.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Second Beast): “Then I saw another beast rising out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb and it spoke like a dragon. It exercises all the authority of the first beast in its presence, and makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose mortal wound was healed.” (13:11-12)
A. INFERENCE: “It performs great signs, even making fire come down from heaven to earth in front of people, and by the signs that it is allowed to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast might even speak and might cause those who would not worship the image of the beast to be slain.” (13:13-15)
1. FINDINGS: “Also it causes all, both small and great, both rich and poor, both free and slave, to be marked on the right hand or the forehead, so that no one can buy or sell unless he has the mark, that is, the name of the beast or the number of its name.” (13:16-17)
2. CRITERIA: “This calls for wisdom: let the one who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man, and his number is 666.” (13:18)
3. CONDITION: “He is called the ‘False Prophet’ or ‘Anti-spirit.’” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
4. CAUSE: “Those who understand the first beast to denote a worldly power, take the second to be also a persecuting and assumed power, which acts under the disguise of religion, and of charity to the souls of men. It is a spiritual dominion, professing to be derived from Christ, and exercised at first in a gentle manner, but soon spake like the dragon. Its speech betrayed it; for it gives forth those false doctrines and cruel decrees, which show it to belong to the dragon, and not to the Lamb.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The second beast (13:11–18) functions to witness to the Antichrist (2 Thess. 2:4). He is referred to as the “false prophet” (19:20). This would serve as a warning against false prophets to the original readers of John’s revelation, just as it is for believers today. When God’s purposes are finished through the beast, he will be judged (20:10). The assurance that God will punish evildoers sustains the faith of the persecuted. (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Follow the Holy Trinity and God’s word.

Revelation 14:1, I. The Lamb and the 144,000; II. The Messages of the Three Angels; III. The Harvest of the Earth

I. KEY TEXT (The Lamb and the 144,000): “Then I looked, and behold, on Mount Zion stood the Lamb, and with him 144,000 who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads.” (14:1)
A. INFERENCE: “And I heard a voice from heaven like the roar of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder. The voice I heard was like the sound of harpist playing on their harps, and they were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and before the elders.” (14:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “No one could learn that song except the 144,000 who had been redeemed from the earth.” (14:3)
2. CRITERIA: “It is these who have not defiled themselves with women, for they are virgins. It is these who follow the Lamb wherever he goes.” (14:4)
3. CONDITION: “These have been redeemed from mankind as firstfruits for God and the Lamb, and in their mouth no lie was found, for they are blameless.” (14:4-5)
4. CAUSE: “The Lamb here is Christ, and the Mount Zion is not Mount Zion of the earthly Jerusalem but of the Heavenly of which Paul speaks in Heb. 12:22-23.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
5. EFFECT: “The 144,000 ‘Sealed Ones’ are in Heaven, either having been translated or died a Martyr’s death, and they are the ‘First-Fruits of the restored nation of Israel, not the ‘First-Fruits’ of the Church for that is represented by the ‘Elders’ and was gathered out long before.” (Larkin, The Book of Revelation)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “See NOTE in comment below.”

II. KEY TEXT (The Messages of the Three Angels): “Then I saw another angel flying directly overhead, with an eternal gospel to proclaim to those who dwell on earth, to every nation and tribe and language and people. And he said with a loud voice, ‘Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgment has come, and worship him who made heaven and earth, the sea and the springs of water.” (14:6-7)
A. INFERENCE: “Another angel, a second, followed, saying ‘Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, she who made all nations drink the wine of the passion of her sexual immorality. And another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a loud voice, ‘If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name.” (14:8-11)
1. FINDINGS: “Here is a call for the endurance of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God and their faith in Jesus.” (14:12)
2. CRITERIA: “And I heard a voice from heaven saying ‘Write this: Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.’ ‘Blessed indeed,’ says the Spirit, ‘that they may rest from their labors, for their deeds follow them!’” (14:13)
3. CONDITION: “The gospel is the great means whereby men are brought to fear God, and to give glory to him. The preaching of the everlasting gospel shakes the foundations of antichrist in the world, and hastens its downfall. If any persist in being subject to the beast, and in promoting his cause, they must expect to be for ever miserable in soul and body. The believer is to venture or suffer any thing in obeying the commandments of God, and professing the faith of Jesus.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Observe the description of those that are and shall be blessed: such as die in the Lord; die in the cause of Christ, in a state of union with Christ; such as are found in Christ when death comes. They rest from all sin, temptation, sorrow, and persecution; for there the wicked cease from troubling, there the weary are at rest.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Their works follow them: do not go before as their title, or purchase, but follow them as proofs of their having lived and died in the Lord: the remembrance of them will be pleasant, and the reward far above all their services and sufferings. This is made sure by the testimony of the Spirit, witnessing with their spirits, and the written word.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We cannot understand the torment of those who are depicted in Rev. 14:9-12, except it be the remorse at having refused the love of the Lamb of God. Even Christ Himself cannot save a soul from its self-condemnation.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (The Harvest of the Earth): “Then I looked, and behold, a white cloud, and seated on the cloud one like a son of man, with a golden crown on his head, and a sharp sickle in his hand.” (14:14)
A. INFERENCE: “And another angel came out of the temple, calling with a loud voice to him who sat on the cloud, ‘Put in your sickle, and reap, for the hour to reap has come, for the harvest of the earth is fully ripe.” (14:15)
1. FINDINGS: “So he who sat on the cloud swung his sickle across the earth, and the earth was reaped.” (14:16)
2. CRITERIA: “Then another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. And another angel came out from the altar, the angel who has authority over the fire, and he called with a loud voice to the one who had the sharp sickle, ‘Put in your sickle and gather the clusters from the vine of the earth, for its grapes are ripe.’” (14:17-18)
3. CONDITION: “So the angel swung his sickle across the earth and gathered the grape harvest of the earth and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.” (14:19)
4. CAUSE: “And the winepress was trodden outside the city, and blood flowed from the winepress, as high as a horse’s bridle, for 1,600 stadia.” (14:20)
5. EFFECT: “. . . the grapes of the earth are ripe . . . ” (14:18)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “See NOTE in comment below.”