Week #137; Wed, Aug 12: John 18:1–Acts 2:47

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

John 18:1, I. Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus; II. Jesus Faces Annas and Caiaphas; III. Peter Denys Jesus; IV. The High Priest Questions Jesus; V. Peter Denies Jesus Again; VI. Jesus Before Pilate; VII. My Kingdom Is Not of This World

I. KEY TEXT (Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus): “When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the Kidron Valley, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples. So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons.” (18:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “Then Jesus, knowing all that would happen to him, came forward and said to them, ‘Whom do you seek?’ They answered him, ‘Jesus of Nazareth.'” (18:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “When Jesus said to them, ‘I am he,’ They drew back and fell to the ground. So he asked them again, ‘Whom do you seek?’ And they said, ‘Jesus of Nazareth.’ Jesus answered, ‘I told you that I am he. So if you seek me, let these men go.’” (18:6-8)
2. CRITERIA: “This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken: ‘Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one.’” (18:9)
3. CONDITION: “Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus.)” (18:10)
4. CAUSE: “So Jesus said to Peter, ‘Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?’” (18:10-11)
5. EFFECT: “The presence of this band of Roman soldiers with the Jewish police gives very great force and impressiveness to this scene of Israel’s degradation and of the world’s assault upon the Divine Savior.” (The Pulpit Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Jesus could not allow himself to be delivered from the predicted death and His Father’s larger plan to restore His perfect kingdom. He was ready to be taken. We need to be ready to be taken too; follow Jesus.

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Faces Annas and Caiaphas): “So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound him. First they led him to Annas, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews that it would be expedient that one man should die for the people.” (18:12-14)
A. INFERENCE: “Though Annas’ son-in-law, Caiaphas, was the actual high priest at this time, Annas himself was far from inactive. In addition to Caiaphas, Annas had several sons who succeeded him in this office, giving this one family a monopoly on the high priesthood for over half a century. Luke is the only other writer who mentions Annas (Lk 3:2; Acts 4:6). Jewish sources label the regime of Annas as corrupt (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “When the people would have forced him to a crown, he withdrew, ch. 6:15, but when they came to force him to a cross, he offered himself; for he came into this world to suffer, and went to the other world to reign.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “He showed plainly what he could have done; when he struck them down he could have struck them dead, but he would not do so. It must have been the effect of Divine power, that the officers and soldiers let the disciples go away quietly, after the resistance which had been offered.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “From the example of our Savior we should learn how to receive our lighter afflictions, and to ask ourselves whether we ought to oppose our Father’s will, or to distrust his love.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Expediency for the Jews. They did not know that it was also expedient for the Father and His master plan to restore His perfect kingdom (God’s Strategic Plan).”
5. EFFECT: “This passage describes the first steps taken by the enemies of our Lord to conduct the examination which was to issue in a judicial murder, and therefore to provide the basis on which the charge might be laid before Pilate and that Roman court, which alone could carry into execution the malicious conclusion on which they had already resolved.” (The Pulpit Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Understand the greater Father’s Master Plan and trust Jesus to get through temporary trials.

III. KEY TEXT (Peter Denys Jesus): “Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple (likely John). Since that disciple was known to the high priest, he entered with Jesus into the court of the high priest, but Peter stood outside at the door. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door, and brought Peter in.” (18:15-16)
A. INFERENCE: “The servant girl at the door said to Peter, ‘You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you? He said, ‘I am not.’ Now the servants and officers had made a charcoal fire, because it was cold, and they were standing warming themselves. Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself.” (18:17-18)
1. FINDINGS: “The word known is found again in Lk 2:44; 23:49. This connection, to be traced, very likely, through his mother and her family, enabled John to secure admission for Peter to the inner court.” (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Christ, being made a sin-offering for us, to free us from those bonds, himself submitted to be bound for us. To his bonds we owe our liberty; thus the Son makes us free.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Peter found himself with the captors of Jesus, warming himself by a fire in the courtyard.” (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The naturalness of these small details is not unworthy of notice. This other disciple first made good his own entrance on the score of acquaintance with the high priest; this secured, he goes forth again, now as a privileged person, to make interest for Peter’s admission.” (Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: ““He denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest” (Mat_26:70) – a common form of point blank denial; “I know [supply ‘Him’] not, neither understand I what thou sayest” (Mar_14:68); “Woman, I know Him not” (Luk_22:57). This was THE FIRST DENIAL. “And he went out into the porch [thinking, perhaps, to steal away], and the cock crew,” (Mar_14:68).” (Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t let the cock crow; don’t make unachievable promises.

IV. KEY TEXT (The High Priest Questions Jesus): “The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. Jesus answered him, ‘I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all Jews come together. I have said nothing in secret.” (18:19-20)
A. INFERENCE: “Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them; they know what I said.’” (18:21)
1. FINDINGS: “When he had said these things, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand, saying, ‘Is that how you answer the high priest?’ Jesus answered him, ‘If what I said is wrong, bear witness about the wrong; but if what I said is right, why do you strike me?’” (18:22-23)
2. CRITERIA: “They said nothing concerning the miracles of Jesus, by which he had done so much good, and which proved his doctrine. Thus the enemies of Christ, whilst they quarrel with his truth, willfully shut their eyes against it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Annas then sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.” (18:24)
4. CAUSE: “Now that he is their prisoner they have nothing to lay to his charge. Against all reason and justice, he is called on to be his own accuser.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “It was unjust to put one to death who had done so much good, therefore the Jews were willing to save themselves from reproach. Many fear the scandal of an ill thing, more than the sin of it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Speak openly to the world about Jesus.

V. KEY TEXT (Peter Denies Jesus Again): “Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. So they said to him, ‘You also are not one of his disciples, are you?’ He denied it and said, ‘I am not.’” (18:25)
A. INFERENCE: “One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, ‘Did I not see you in the garden with him?” (18:26)
1. FINDINGS: “Peter again denied it, and at once a rooster crowed.” (18:27)
2. CRITERIA: “Here he was attacked by one of the servants, who was kinsman to Malchus, who exposed his lie with great assurance.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “This servant saw him with Jesus.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Of the sin of lying in particular; it is a fruitful sin; one lie needs another to support it, and that another.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The crowing of the rooster to others was an accidental thing, and had no significance, but to Peter it was the voice of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Do not lie.

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before Pilate): “Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor’s headquarters. It was early morning. They themselves did not enter the governor’s headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover.” (18:28-29)
A. INFERENCE: “So what accusation do you bring against this man?’ They answered him, ‘If this man were not doing evil, we would not have delivered him over to you.’” (18:30)
1. FINDINGS: “Pilate said to them, ‘Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.’” (18:31)
2. CRITERIA: “The Jews said to him, ‘It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death.’” (18:31)
3. CONDITION: “This was to fulfill the word that Jesus had spoken to show by what kind of death he was going to die.” (18:32)
4. CAUSE: “They hurried him, to get him condemned in the Roman court, and executed by the Roman power.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “There would be little danger of an uproar of the people.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Trust Scripture; time will unfold accordingly.

VII. KEY TEXT (My Kingdom Is Not of This World): “So Pilate entered his headquarters again and called Jesus and said to him, ‘Are you the King of the Jews?’ Jesus answered, ‘Do you say this of your own accord, or did others say it to you about me?’” (18:33-34)
A. INFERENCE: “Pilate answered, ‘Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you over to me. What have you done?’” (18:35)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus answered, ‘My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.’” (18:36)
2. CRITERIA: “Then Pilate said to him, ‘So you are a king?’ Jesus answered, ‘You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world–to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.’” (18:37)
3. CONDITION: “Pilate said to him, ‘What is the truth?” (18:38)
4. CAUSE: “After he had said this, he went back outside to the Jews and told them, ‘I find no guilt in him. But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover. So do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?’” (18:38-39)
5. EFFECT: “They cried out again, ‘Not this man, but Barabbas!’ Now Barabbas was a robber.” (18:40)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Seek justice.

John 19:1, I. Jesus Delivered to Be Crucified; II. The Crucifixion; III. The Death of Jesus; IV. Jesus’ Side is Pierced; V. Jesus Is Buried

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus Delivered to Be Crucified): “Then Pilate took Jesus and flogged him. And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe. They came up to him saying, ‘Hail, King of the Jews!’ and struck him with their hands.” (19:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “Pilate went out again and said to them, ‘See, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that I find no guilt in him.’ So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, ‘Behold the man!” (19:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, ‘Crucify him, crucify him!’ Pilot said to them, ‘Take him yourselves and crucify him, for I find no guilt in him.’ The Jews answered him, ‘We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die because he has made himself the Son of God.’” (19:6-7)
2. CRITERIA: “When Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid. He entered his headquarters again and said to Jesus, ‘Where are you from?’ But Jesus gave him no answer. So Pilate said to him, ‘You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?’” (19:8-10)
3. CONDITION: “Jesus answered him, ‘You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. Therefore he who delivered me over to you has the greater sin.’” (19:11)
4. CAUSE: “From then on Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, ‘If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend. Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.’” (19:12)
5. EFFECT: “So when Pilate herd these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Aramaic Gabbatha. Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, ‘Behold your King! They cried out, ‘Away with him, away with him, crucify him!’ Pilate said to them, ‘Shall I crucify your King?’ The chief priests answered, ‘We have no king but Caesar.’ So he delivered him over to them to be crucified.” (19:13-16)
6. RECOMMENDATION: God has a master plan that cannot be denied.

II. KEY TEXT (The Crucifixion): “So they took Jesus, and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called The Place of a Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha. ‘There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them. Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It read, ‘Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.’ Many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was written in Aramaic, in Latin, and in Greek.” (19:17-20)
A. INFERENCE: “So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, ‘Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” (19:21)
1. FINDINGS: “Pilot answered, ‘What I have written I have written.’” (19:22)
2. CRITERIA: “When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his garments and divided them into four parts, one part for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom, so they said to one another, ‘Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be.’ This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, ‘They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.’” (19:23-24)
3. CONDITION: “So the soldiers did these things, but standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, ‘Woman, behold, your son!’ Then he said to the disciple, ‘Behold, your mother!’ And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home.” (19:25-27)
4. CAUSE: “The title set up above his head had much more meaning than that for the day.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “This is Jesus a Savior, dying for the good of his people, as Caiaphas had foretold.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Regardless, Christ is proclaimed king in three languages.

III. KEY TEXT (The Death of Jesus): “After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), ‘I thirst.’ A jar full of sour wine stood there, so they put a sponge full of the sour wine on a hyssop branch and held it to his mouth. When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, ‘It is finished,’ and he bowed his head and gave up the spirit.” (19:28-30)
A. INFERENCE: “The scripture had foretold his thirst, and therefore he himself related it, because it could not otherwise be known.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
1. FINDINGS: “Little respect was shown by his persecutors by giving vinegar in lieu of water.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “’It is finished,’ are words of triumph and exultation.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Ceremonial law is abolished; sin is finished, and an end made of transgression; his redemption and salvation is now completed.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “His life was not forcibly extorted from him, but given up freely.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “A fatal blow was given to the power of Satan, a fountain of grace opened that shall ever flow.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Count on grace for full pardon of sin through Jesus Christ.

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus’ Side Is Pierced): “Since it was the day of Preparation, and so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away.” (19:31)
A. INFERENCE: “So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. (19:32-34)
1. FINDINGS: “He who saw it has borne witness–his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth–that you also may believe.” (19:35)
2. CRITERIA: “For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: ‘Not one of his bones will be broken.’ And again another Scripture says, ‘They will look on him whom they have pierced.’” (19:36-37)
3. CONDITION: “Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jews did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken, and that then they might be buried out of sight.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Their consciences was not pricked by bringing an innocent and excellent person to the cross, and yet they had scruples about letting a dead body hang on the cross.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The accomplishment of Scripture.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Our two great ordinances of baptism and the Lord’s supper are brought to mind by the water and the blood that came from Jesus’ side.

V. KEY TEXT (Jesus Is Buried): “After these things Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took away his body.” (19:38)
A. INFERENCE: “Nicodemus also, who earlier had come to Jesus by night, came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds in weight. So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.” (19:39-40)
1. FINDINGS: “Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid. So because of the Jewish day of Preparation, since the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there.” (19:41-42)
2. CRITERIA: “Christ was buried in a garden. It was outside the city near where he was crucified.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “They would not put off the funeral until the Sabbath day, because the Sabbath is to be a day of holy rest and joy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Thus without pomp or ceremony is the body of Jesus laid in the cold and silent grave.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Here lies death itself slain, and the grave conquered.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Thanks be to God, who gives us the victory. (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

John 20:1, I. The Resurrection; II. Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene; III. Jesus Appears to the Disciples; IV. Jesus and Thomas; V. The Purpose of This Book

I. KEY TEXT (The Resurrection): “Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene came to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb. So she ran and went to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved, and said to them, ‘They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him.’” (20:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “So Peter went out with the other disciple, and they were going toward the tomb. Both of them were running together, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first.” (20:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “And stooping to look in, he saw the linen cloths lying there, but he did not go in. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying there, and the face cloth, which had been on Jesus’ head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself. Then the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went in, and he saw and believed; for as yet they did not understand the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead. Then the disciples went back to their homes.” (20:5-10)
2. CRITERIA: “There was no one thing of which the apostles were more concerned to produce substantial proof than the resurrection of their Master.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “But the demonstrations of his resurrection should be reserved as a favor for his particular friends, and by them be proclaimed to the world, that those might be blessed who have not seen, and yet have believed.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Proof of Christ’s resurrection: an angel at the empty tomb, the stone was rolled away, Peter and John find an empty tomb,” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Because Peter and John were at a loss and seeing no angel, they went home.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Move on faith.

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene): “But Mary stood weeping outside the tomb, and as she wept she stooped to look into the tomb. And she saw two angels in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had lain, one at the head and one at the feet.” (20:11-12)
A. INFERENCE: “They said to her, ‘Woman, why are you weeping?’ She said to them, ‘They have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him.’” (20:13)
1. FINDINGS: “Having said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, but she did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus said to her, ‘Woman, why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking? Supposing him to be the gardener, she said to him, ‘Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.’ Jesus said to her, ‘Mary.’ She turned and said to him in Aramaic, ‘Rabboni!’ (which means Teacher). Jesus said to her, ‘Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ Mary Magdalene went and announced to the disciples, ‘I have seen the Lord’–and that he had said these things to her.” (20:14-18)
2. CRITERIA: “Mary saw two angels in the tomb dressed in white, seated one at the head, and the other at the feet, of the grave.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “The two angels were there to bear witness.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Glorified saints, when they come to be as the angels, shall walk with Christ in white.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “These angelic guards, keeping possession of the tomb, when they had frightened away the guards, represents Christ’s victory over the powers of darkness.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: These two angels remind us of the two cherubim, placed one at either end of the mercy-seat, looking one at another. They direct us to the way of life. (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus Appears to the Disciples): “On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors being locked where the disciples were for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said to them, ‘Peace be with you.’ When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord.” (20:19-20)
A. INFERENCE: “Jesus said to them again, ‘Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I am sending you.’” (20:21)
1. FINDINGS: “And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you withhold forgiveness from any, it is withheld.’” (20:22-23)
2. CRITERIA: “The infallible proof of Christ’s resurrection was his showing himself alive.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Eyewitnesses that he is alive.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Christ was now sending the disciples to proclaim peace to the world, and he here not only confers it on them but commits it to them as a trust to be by them transmitted.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He appointed them to go on with his work on earth. He sent them authorized with a divine warrant, armed with a diving power. Thus they were called apostles–men sent.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Go on where he left off.

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus and Thomas): “Now Thomas, one of the Twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord.’ But he said to them, ‘Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails, and place my finger into the mark of the nails, and place my hand into his side, I will never believe.’” (20:24-25)
A. INFERENCE: “Eight days later, his disciples were inside again, and Thomas was with them. Although the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you.’” (20:26)
1. FINDINGS: “Then he said to Thomas, ‘Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.’ Thomas answered him, ‘My Lord and my God!’ Jesus said to him, ‘Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.’” (20:27-29)
2. CRITERIA: “The disciples of Christ should endeavor to build up one another in their most holy faith, both by repeating what they have heard to those who were absent, and also by communicating what they have experienced.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He deferred another visit by seven days that he might rebuke Thomas for his incredulity.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “That he might honor the first day of the week, and give a plain intimation of his will, that it should be observed in his church as the Christian Sabbath.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “From that time the religious observance of that day has been transmitted down to us through every age of the church.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: We should show the tender care Jesus had for Thomas.

V. KEY TEXT (The Purpose of This Book): “Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.” (20:30-31)
A. INFERENCE: “John assures us that although many other things occurred, the things in this book are recorded that we may believe on the basis of these evidences; that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
1. FINDINGS: “The purpose of those who wrote the gospel without any view of temporal benefit to themselves or others, is to bring men to Christ and heaven, and to persuade men to believe.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “The purpose of those who read and hear the gospel is to believe, to embrace, the doctrine of Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “To believe that Jesus is Christ, the Son of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “He is the Son of God, endued with the power of God and entitled to the glory of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “What the great gospel blessedness is which we are to hope for–That by believing we may have life through his name.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Life through Christ’s name is what we must propose to ourselves as the fulness of our joy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

John 21:1, I. Jesus Appears to Seven Disciples; II. Jesus and Peter; III. Jesus and the Beloved Apostle

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus Appears to Seven Disciples): “After this Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias (Galilee), and he revealed himself in this way.” (21:1)
A. INFERENCE: “Simon Peter, Thomas (called the Twin), Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. Simon Peter said to them, ‘I am going fishing.’ They said to him, ‘We will go with you.’ They went out and got into the boat, but that night they caught nothing.” (21:2-3)
1. FINDINGS: “Just as day was breaking, Jesus stood on the shore; yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus said to them, ‘Children, do you have any fish? They answered him, ‘No.’ He said to them, ‘Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.’ So they cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, because of the quantity of fish.” (21:4-6)
2. CRITERIA: “That disciple whom Jesus loved therefore said to Peter, ‘It is the Lord!’ When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his outer garment, for he was stripped for work, and threw himself into the sea. The other disciples came in the boat, dragging the net full of fish, for they were not far from the land, but about a hundred yards off.” (21:7-8)
3. CONDITION: “When they got out on land, they saw a charcoal fire in place, with fish laid out on it, and bread. Jesus said to them, ‘Bring some of the fish that you have just caught.’ So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish. 153 of them. And although there were so many, the net was not torn. Jesus said to them, ‘Come and have breakfast.’ Now none of the disciples dared ask him, ‘Who are you?’ They knew it was the Lord. Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and so with the fish. This was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples after he was raised from the dead.” (21:9-14)
4. CAUSE: “Christ has many ways of making himself known to his people; sometimes by his Spirit he visits them when they are employed in common business.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “While only seven of the twelve saw Jesus at this event, he visited them while they were fishing, to redeem time as a business endeavor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Speak as Jesus spoke, with the care and tenderness of a father.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus and Peter): “When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, ‘Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these? He said to him, ‘Yes, Lord; you know that I love you.’ He said to him, ‘Feed my lambs.’” (21:15)
A. INFERENCE: “He said to him a second time, ‘Simon, son of John, do you love me? He said to him, ‘Yes, Lord; you know that I love you’ He said to him, ‘Tend my sheep.’” (21:16)
1. FINDINGS: “He said to him the third time, ‘Simon, son of John, do you love me?’ Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, ‘Do you love me? and he said to him, ‘Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, ‘Feed my sheep.’” (21:17)
2. CRITERIA: “Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you used to dress yourself and walk wherever you wanted, but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go.’” (21:18)
3. CONDITION: “(This he said to show by what kind of death he was to glorify God.)” (21:19)
4. CAUSE: “And after saying this he said to him, ‘Follow me.’” (21:19)
5. EFFECT: “His command to them was to bring their catch ashore.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Follow Him; be obedient to his command, bring our catch to him too (i.e., ‘Feed my sheep.’).

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus and the Beloved Apostle): “Peter turned and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them, the one who had been reclining at table close to him and had said, ‘Lord, who is it that is going to betray you? When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, ‘Lord, what about this man?’ Jesus said to him, ‘If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow me!” (21:20-22)
A. INFERENCE: “Peter turned and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them, the one who had been reclining at table close to him and had said, ‘Lord, who is it that is going to betray you?” (21:23)
1. FINDINGS: “This is the disciple who is bearing witness about these things, and who has written these things, and we know that his testimony is true.” (21:24)
2. CRITERIA: “Now there are also many other things that Jesus did. Were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written.” (21:25)
3. CONDITION: “This is the disciple who testifies about these things to the present age, and wrote these things for the benefit of posterity.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Those who wrote the history of Christ wrote with their own knowledge.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The penman of this history was a disciple, one who had leaned on Chris’s breast, who had himself heard his sermons, had seen his miracles, and the proofs of his resurrection.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We know that his testimony is true.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Acts 1:1, I. The Promise of the Holy Spirit; II. The Ascension; III. Matthias Chosen to Replace Judas

I. KEY TEXT (The Promise of the Holy Spirit): “In the first book, O Theophilus, I have dealt with all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when he was taken up, after he had given commands through the Holy Spirit to the apostles, whom he had chosen. He presented himself alive to them after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them during forty days and speaking about the kingdom of God.” (1:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “And while staying with them he ordered them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, ‘you heard from me; for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.’” (1:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus gave his apostles instructions through the Holy Spirit.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “He spoke about the kingdom of God. He had given them a general idea of that kingdom, but here he instructed them more in the nature of it, as a kingdom of grace in this world and of glory in the other, to prepare them to receive the Holy spirit, and to go through that which they were intended for.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “The disciples, to whom he gave many convincing proofs that he was alive, knew that it was he, not only by what he showed them, but by what he said to them. None but he could speak thus clearly, thus fully, about the kingdom of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Now this gift of the Holy Spirit he speaks of was given by promise of the Father. The Spirit of God is not given as the spirit of men is given us, but by the word of God. That the gift may be the more valuable. That it may be the more sure. That is may be of grace, and may be received by faith.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “This speaks of that particular power which the first preachers of the gospel were endured with.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “By virtue of this promise we receive the New Testament as of divine inspiration.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (The Ascension): “So when they had come together, they asked him, ‘Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?’” (1:6)
A. INFERENCE: “He said to them, ‘It is not for your to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority.’” (1:7)
1. FINDINGS: “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. And when he had said these things, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight.” (1:8-9)
2. CRITERIA: “And while they were gazing into heaven as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white robes, and said, ‘Men of Galilee why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.’” (1:10-11)
3. CONDITION: “They thought Christ would restore the kingdom to Israel, whereas Christ came to set up his own kingdom, and that a kingdom of heaven, not to restore the kingdom to Israel, and earthly kingdom.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “They were inquisitive into that which their Master had never encouraged them to enquire into. They were impatient for the setting up of that kingdom in which they promised themselves so great a share.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “That mistake would soon be rectified by the pouring out of the Spirit, after which they never had any more thoughts of the temporal kingdom.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Do not have an inordinate desire for forbidden knowledge.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Matthias Chosen to Replace Judas): “Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away. And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James. All these with one accord were devoting themselves to prayer, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers.” (1:12-14)
A. INFERENCE: “In those days Peter stood up among the brothers (the company of persons was in all about 120) and said, ‘Brothers, the Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus. (Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness, and falling headlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out. And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the field was called in their own language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.) ‘For it is written in the Book of Psalms, ‘May his camp become desolate, and let there be no one to dwell in it’; and ‘Let another take his office.’” (1:15-20)
1. FINDINGS: “So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up from us–one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection.’ And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus and Matthias. And they prayed and said, You, Lord, who know the hearts of all , show which one of these two you have chosen to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place.’” (1:21-25)
2. CRITERIA: “And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.” (1:26)
3. CONDITION: “The sin of Judas made a vacancy in the group of the apostles.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “If they were but eleven, it would occasion everyone to enquire what had become of the twelfth; therefore care was taken up to fill up the vacancy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Per David’s foretelling, Scripture is fulfilled.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Know that Christ’s cause shall never be lost for lack of witnesses.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Acts 2:1, I. The Coming of the Holy Spirit; II. Peter’s Sermon at Pentecost; III. The Fellowship of Believers

I. KEY TEXT (The Coming of the Holy Spirit): “When the day of Pentecost arrived, they were all together in one place. And suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and rested on each one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance.” (2:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “Now there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven. And at this sound the multitude came together, and they were bewildered, because each one was hearing them speak in his own language.” (2:5-6)
1. FINDINGS: “And they were amazed and astonished, saying, ‘Are not all these who are speaking Galileans? And how is it that we hear, each of us in his own native language? Parthians and Medes and Elamites and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya belonging to Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabians–we hear them telling in our own tongues the mighty works of God.’ And all were amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, ‘What does this mean?’ But others mocking said, They are filled with new wine.’” (2:7-13)
2. CRITERIA: “The day of Pentecost.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “There was a solemn feast, because there was then a great concourse of people to Jerusalem from all parts, which would make the fame of it to be spread the sooner and further.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “This Feast of Pentecost was kept in remembrance of the giving of the law on Mount Sinai.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Fitly, therefore, is the Holy Spirit given at that Feast, in fire and in tongues, for the promulgation of the evangelical law, not as that to one nation, but to every creature.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Be of one accord in one place–the church.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (Peter’s Sermon at Pentecost): “But Peter, standing with the eleven, lifted up his voice and addressed them: ‘Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and give ear to my words. For these people are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day. But this is what was uttered through the prophet Joel: ‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams; even on my male servants and female servants in those days I will pour out my Spirit, and they shall prophesy. And I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke; the sun shall be turned to darkness and the moon to blood, before the day of the Lord comes, the great and magnificent day. And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.’” (2:14-21)
A. INFERENCE: “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in you midst, as you yourselves know–this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men. God raised him up, loosing the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it. For David says concerning him, ‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken; therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced; my flesh also will dwell in hope. For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One see corruption. You have made known to me the paths of life; you will make me full of gladness with your presence.’” (2:22-28)
1. FINDINGS: “Brothers, I may say to you with confidence about the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having receiving from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.’” (2:29-35)
2. CRITERIA: “’Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.’” (2:36)
3. CONDITION: “Now when they heard this they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, ‘Brothers, what shall we do?’ ” (2:37)
4. CAUSE: “And Peter said to them, ‘Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.’” (2:38-39)
5. EFFECT: “And with many other words he bore witness and continued to exhort them, saying, ‘Save yourselves from this crooked generation.’ So those who received his word were baptized, and there were added that day about three thousand souls.” (2:40-41)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Repent.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume and “Theo-metrics, a 3-D graphic view”)

III. KEY TEXT (The Fellowship of Believers): “And they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers. And awe came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were being done through the apostles. And all who believed were together and had all things in common.” (2:42-44)
A. INFERENCE: “And they were selling their possessions and belongings and distributing the proceeds to all, as any had need.” (2:43-45)
1. FINDINGS: “And day by day, attending the temple together and breaking bread in their homes, they received their food with glad and generous hearts, praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord added to their number day by day those who were being saves.” (2:46-47)
2. CRITERIA: “We have the history of the truly simple church, its state of infancy indeed, but, like that, the state of its greatest innocence.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “They kept close to holy ordinances and they were diligent and constant in their attendance on the preaching of the word. They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching. They kept up the communion of saints and fellowship, the Lord’s supper, prayer, thanksgiving, loving toward each other, and raised funds for charity.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The Lord added to the church daily.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The Lord gave them the power to work miracles.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Endeavour to do the same with reverent preaching and living.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

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