Week #133; Wed, Jul 15: Luke 22:1-John 1:51


Luke 22:1, I. Plot to Kill Jesus; II. Judas to Betray Jesus; III. The Passover with the Disciples; IV. Institution of the Lord’s Supper; V. Who Is the Greatest?; VI. Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial; VII. Scripture Must Be Fulfilled in Jesus; VIII. Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives; IX. Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus; X. Peter Denies Jesus; XI. Jesus Is Mocked; XII. Jesus Before the Council

I. KEY TEXT (Plot to Kill Jesus): “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover.” (22:1)
A. INFERENCE: “And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to put him to death, for they feared the people.” (22:2)
1. FINDINGS: “When Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said to his disciples, ‘You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified.’ Then the chief priests and the elders of the people gathered in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and plotted together in order to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. But they said, ‘Not during the feast, lest there be an uproar among the people.'” (Matt. 26:1-5)
2. CRITERIA: “The world seemed in arms against the greatest Lover of souls that had ever trod earth’s soil.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “His sworn enemies contriving it, the chief priests, and the teachers of the law were looking for some way to get rid of Jesus. Could they have had their wish, it had been soon done, but they were afraid of the people.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The high priest and the elders plotted to arrest Jesus and kill him before the feast.” (Matt. 26:1-5)
5. EFFECT: “They relied on help by Judas, his betrayer. Satan entered Judas.” (Matt. 26:1-5)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wear the full armor of God.” (Eph. 6:11)

II. KEY TEXT (Judas to Betray Jesus): “Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. He went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers how he might betray him to them. And they were glad, and agreed to give him money. So he consented and sought an opportunity to betray him to them in the absence of a crowd.” (22:3-6)
A. INFERENCE: “Christ knew all men, and had wise and holy ends in taking Judas to be a disciple. How he who knew Christ so well, came to betray him, we are here told; Satan entered into Judas. It is hard to say whether more mischief is done to Christ’s kingdom, by the power of its open enemies, or by the treachery of its pretended friends; but without the latter, its enemies could not do so much evil as they do.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Satan entered the heart of Judas, for it was his hour, and he gathered all his strength for one last prodigious effort to overthrow the Son of man and thwart His sublime purpose of redemption.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Judas, one of the inner circle, did not hesitate to choose thirty pieces of silver rather than love, purity, compassion, as they were incarnate in the Son of man. The religious leaders of the age also eagerly caught at their chance.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “It was the devil’s work. ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Whoever betrays Christ, or his truths or ways, it is Satan who incites them to it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Judas knew how desirous the chief priests were to get Christ into their hands. He therefore went himself, and made the first move.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Make no contract with the devil.

III. KEY TEXT (The Passover with the Disciples): “Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.’ They said to him, ‘Where will you have us prepare it?’ He said to them, ‘Behold, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters and tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples? And he will show you a large upper room furnished; prepare it there.'” (22:7-12)
A. INFERENCE: “In the meanwhile the Lord girded Himself for the conflict by gathering to His heart the remainder of the apostolic band, though none of them really understood. The arrangement of the man with the waterpot was evidently to elude arrest during the supper, as Judas could not inform his accomplices beforehand of the selected supper room. Remember that Jesus asks each of us for the guest chamber of our heart! Ask Him, not to be as a wayfaring man who tarries for the night, but to abide always.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “And they went and found it just as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.” (22:13)
2. CRITERIA: “The awful stages of it were these: (1) Covetousness being his master—passion, the Lord let it reveal itself and gather strength by entrusting him with “the bag” (Jn 12:6), as treasurer to Himself and the Twelve. (2) In the discharge of that most sacred trust he became “a thief,” appropriating its contents from time to time to his own use. Satan, seeing this door into his heart standing wide open, determines to enter by it, but cautiously (2 Co 2:11); first merely “putting it into his heart to betray Him” (Jn 13:2), suggesting the thought to him that by this means he might enrich himself. (3) This thought was probably converted into a settled purpose by what took place in Simon’s house at Bethany. (Mt 26:6, and Jn 12:4–8.) (4) Starting back, perhaps, or mercifully held back, for some time, the determination to carry it into immediate effect was not consummated till, sitting at the paschal supper, “Satan entered into him” (Jn 13:27), and conscience, effectually stifled, only rose again to be his tormentor. What lessons in all this for every one (Eph 4:27; Jam 4:7; 1 Pe 5:8, 9)!” (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ kept the ordinances of the law, particularly that of the Passover, to teach us to observe his gospel institutions, and most of all that of the Lord’s supper. Those who go upon Christ’s word, need not fear disappointment. According to the orders given them, the disciples got all ready for the Passover. Jesus bids this Passover welcome. He desired it, though he knew his sufferings would follow, because it was in order to his Father’s glory and man’s redemption.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Money.
5. EFFECT: Root of all evil.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Choose eternal over temporal.

IV. KEY TEXT (Institution of the Lord’s Supper): “And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him. And he said to them, ‘I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.'” (22:14-16)
A. INFERENCE: “And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he said, ‘Take this, and divide it among yourselves. For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.’ And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, ‘This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.’ And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, ‘This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.'” (22:17-20)
1. FINDINGS: “But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. For the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed! And they began to question one another, which of them it could be who was going to do this.” (22:21-23)
2. CRITERIA: “The Lord’s supper is a sign or memorial of Christ already come, who by dying delivered us; his death is in special manner set before us in that ordinance, by which we are reminded of it. The breaking of Christ’s body as a sacrifice for us, is therein brought to our remembrance by the breaking of bread. Nothing can be more nourishing and satisfying to the soul, than the doctrine of Christ’s making atonement for sin, and the assurance of an interest in that atonement. Therefore we do this in remembrance of what He did for us, when he died for us; and for a memorial of what we do, in joining ourselves to him in an everlasting covenant. The shedding of Christ’s blood, by which the atonement was made, is represented by the wine in the cup.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “These two allusions to the kingdom of God, Luke 22:16; Luke 22:18, point onward to the marriage supper when the full purpose of redemption will be consummated. As we partake of bread for our natural strength, so spiritual strength to suffer, to resist temptation and to serve is possible only in proportion as we feed on Christ by meditation and appropriation. And let us never forget that the wine is the emblem of His blood, by which the new covenant was sealed. See Heb 9:18. When therefore at the sacred feast we place the wine to our lips, we may quote the provisions of that covenant, and hold God pledged to fulfill them. See Heb 8:8, etc.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: To prepare for consummation of redemption.
5. EFFECT: Increase of spiritual strength.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Nourish and satisfy the soul in Holy Communion often.

V. KEY TEXT (Who Is the Greatest?): “A dispute also arose among them, as to which of them was to be regarded as the greatest.” (22:24)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those in authority over them are called benefactors. But not so with you.” (22:25
1. FINDINGS: “Rather, let the greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as one who serves.” (22:26)
2. CRITERIA: “For who is the greater, one who reclines at table or one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines at table? But I am among you as the one who serves.” (22:27)
3. CONDITION: “You are those who have stayed with me in my trials, and I assign to you, as my Father assigned to me, a kingdom, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” (22:28-30)
4. CAUSE: “Inconsistency: There they were enquiring which would be the traitor, and here which should be the prince. What a self-contradiction is the deceitful heart of man!” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “That to do good is much more honorable than to look great. That to do good is the surest way to be great.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial): “‘Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned again, strengthen you brothers.'” (22:31-32)
A. INFERENCE: “Peter said to him, ‘Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death.'” (22:33)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus said, ‘I tell you Peter, the rooster will not crow this day, until you deny three times that you know me.'” (22:34)
2. CRITERIA: “If believers were left to themselves, they would fall; but they are kept by the power of God, and the prayer of Christ. Our Lord gave notice of a very great change of circumstances now approaching.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “How often does our Lord anticipate our trial hours by His prayers, Luke 22:32! We owe it to them, either that we do not fall, or that, having fallen, we turn back. This is the best use we can make even of our failures; they teach us humility, pity, and how to help others. How little do we know ourselves!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “They strived for world honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They ought not to strive for worldly honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VII. KEY TEXT (Scripture Must Be Fulfilled in Jesus): “And he said to the, ‘When I sent you out with no moneybag or knapsack or sandals, did you lack anything?’ They said, ‘Nothing.'” (22:35)
A. INFERENCE: “He said to them, ‘But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his cloak and buy one.” (22:36)
1. FINDINGS: “‘For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors.’ For what is written about me has its fulfillment.'” (22:37)
2. CRITERIA: “And they said, ‘Look, Lord, here are two swords.’ And he said to them, ‘It is enough.'” (22:38)
3. CONDITION: “The disciples must not expect that their friends would be kind to them as they had been. Therefore, he that has a purse, let him take it, for he may need it. They must now expect that their enemies would be more fierce than they had been, and they would need weapons. At the time the apostles understood Christ to mean real weapons, but he spake only of the weapons of the spiritual warfare. The sword of the Spirit is the sword with which the disciples of Christ must furnish themselves.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “You are going forth not as before on a temporary mission, provided for without purse or scrip, but into scenes of continued and severe trial, your methods must be different; for purse and scrip will now be needed for support, and the usual means of defense.” (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary).
5. EFFECT: “In these instructions to His Apostles, as to wallet, purse and sword, we must understand that He meant them to realize that the storm was about to burst upon them with furious intensity.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Hold on to the Anchor; it will hold.

VIII. KEY TEXT (Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives): “And he came out and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him, And when he came to the place, he said to them, ‘Pray that you may not enter into temptation.’ And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, ‘Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.'” (22:39-42)
A. INFERENCE: “And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him.” (22:43)
1. FINDINGS: “And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when he rose from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping for sorrow, and he said to them, ‘Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation.'” (22:44-46)
2. CRITERIA: “Some think that our Lord prayed most of all that His body should not give way under His awful anguish. He feared lest He should die before He could reach the Cross! See Heb. 5:7. ‘Oh, my Lord, thy chosen disciples failed thee in that hour; but so have we! What can we say! Help us to share thy vigil and thy prayer!'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “A visitation by a heavenly angel to provide strength.” (22:43)
4. CAUSE: “To provide him strength.” (22:43)
5. EFFECT: “He rose from prayer.” (22:45)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Pray continuously.

IX. KEY TEXT (Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus): “While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him, but Jesus said to him, ‘Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?'” (22:47-48)
A. INFERENCE: “And when those who were around him saw what would follow, they said, ‘Lord, shall we strike with the sword?’ And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. But Jesus said, ‘No more of this!’ And he touched his ear and healed him. (22:49-51)
1. FINDINGS: “Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, ‘Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.'” (22:49-53)
2. CRITERIA: “Nothing can be a greater affront or grief to the Lord Jesus, than to be betrayed by those who profess to be his followers, and say that they love him. Many instances there are, of Christ’s being betrayed by those who, under the form of godliness, fight against the power of it. Jesus here gave an illustrious example of his own rule of doing good to those that hate us, as afterwards he did of praying for those that despitefully use us. Corrupt nature warps our conduct to extremes; we should seek for the Lord’s direction before we act in difficult circumstances. Christ was willing to wait for his triumphs till his warfare was accomplished, and we must be so too. But the hour and the power of darkness were short, and such the triumphs of the wicked always will be.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “It may have been about midnight when the lights and movement of feet indicated the approach of Judas and his band. The kiss of Judas was probably intended to hide his treachery from his fellow-disciples; but it did not deceive his Master, who even in that sad hour sought to touch his heart. When Malchus’ ear was almost severed from the body, it was needful that our Lord should interpose, because, if Peter had been arrested, the gaze of mankind would have been diverted from the spectacle of Christ’s atonement, and a struggle might have ensued at the gate of the garden which would have justified the worst accusations of the high priest.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Judas and Satan.
5. EFFECT: Betrayed by one of his own.
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let darkness give way to light.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

X. KEY TEXT (Peter Denies Jesus): “Then they seized him and led him away, bringing him to the high priest’s house, and Peter was following at a distance. And when they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them.” (22:54-55)
A. INFERENCE: “Then a servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the light and looking closely at him, said, ‘This man also was with him.’ But he denied it, saying, ‘Woman, I do not know him.’ And a little later someone else saw him and said, ‘You also are one of them.’ But Peter said, ‘Man, I am not.’ And after an interval of about an hour still another insisted, saying, ‘Certainly this man also was with him, for he too is a Galilean.’ But Peter said, ‘Man, I do not know what you are talking about.’ And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed.” (22:54-60)
1. FINDINGS: “And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the saying of the Lord, how he had said to him, ‘Before the rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.’ And he went out and wept bitterly.” (22:61-62)
2. CRITERIA: “Peter loved Christ truly, but miscalculated his strength. Be very careful not to adventure yourself into the midst of temptation. If God leads you thither, that is another matter. We do well to remember Psa. 1:1-3. Let us beware of warming ourselves at the world’s fires. It was the firelight falling on his face that revealed Peter, and his brogue that betrayed him.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “But Peter sought to save himself from the results of his folly and sin; only to land deeper and deeper in the morass.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Overconfidence and miscalculation.
5. EFFECT: “Peter’s fall was his denying that he knew Christ, and was his disciple; disowning him because of distress and danger. He that has once told a lie, is strongly tempted to persist: the beginning of that sin, like strife, is as the letting forth of water. The Lord turned and looked upon Peter.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Be restored like Peter. “It was not the mere look from Christ, but the Divine grace with it, that restored Peter.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

XI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Is Mocked): “Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking him as they beat him. They also blindfolded him and kept asking him, ‘Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?’ And they said many other things against him, blaspheming him.” (22:63-65)
A. INFERENCE: “This scene of mockery is very terrible. How difficult the twelve legions of angels must have found it to restrain themselves. See Mat. 26:53. Here we have an exhibition of the hidden evil of the human heart, which is drawn forth in contact with infinite purity, as the stench of stagnant water is elicited by the summer sun.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Our Lord answered not a word to all the false accusations that were leveled against Him. He left the false witnesses to refute each other. But as soon as His divine claims were challenged, He could not keep silence. It is very noticeable that, in this Gospel, which lays such stress on Christ’s pure humanity, Luke makes it so clear that the unwavering affirmation of His equality with God was the cause of His death, Joh. 5:18. Is there not a sense in which the eye of faith always beholds Him seated at the right hand of God’s power?” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Those that condemned Jesus for a blasphemer, were the vilest blasphemers. He referred them to his second coming, for the full proof of his being the Christ, to their confusion, since they would not admit the proof of it to their conviction. He owns himself to be the Son of God, though he knew he should suffer for it. Upon this they ground his condemnation. Their eyes being blinded, they rush on. Let us meditate on this amazing transaction, and consider Him who endured such contradiction of sinners against himself. Luke 22:63.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “How our Lord Jesus was abused by the servants of the high priest. They made fun of him: this sorrowful night to him shall be a merry night to them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “They asked him, ‘Are you the Christ?’ They asked it with a resolution not to believe him, but a plot to ensnare him.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He says, ‘If I tell you, you will not believe me. Why should the cause be stated before you who have already prejudged it?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He referred them (and us) to his second coming . . . ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

XII. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before the Council): “When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people gathered together, both chief priests and scribes. And they led him away to their council, and they said, ‘If you are the Christ, tell us.'” (22:66-67)
A. INFERENCE: “But he said to them, ‘If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask you, you will not answer.” (22:68)
1. FINDINGS: “But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God. So they all said, ‘Are you the Son of God, then?’ And he said to them, ‘You say that I am.’ Then they said, ‘What further testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips.” (22:69-71)
2. CRITERIA: The unexpected.
3. CONDITION: “He confesses himself to be the Son of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “On this they based his condemnation” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They cannot think it possible that he should be the Messiah, if he does not appear, as they expect, in worldly pomp and grandeur.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Yet, even today, expect the unexpected.

Luke 23:1, I. Jesus Before Pilot; II. Jesus Before Herod; III. Pilot Delivers Jesus to be Crucified; IV. The Crucifixion; V. The Death of Jesus; VI. Jesus is Buried

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before Pilot): “Then the whole company of them arose and brought him before Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, ‘We found this man misleading our nation and forbidding us to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king.'” (23:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “And Pilate asked him, ‘Are you the King of the Jews?'” (23:3)
1. FINDINGS: “And he answered him, ‘You have said so.’ Then Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, ‘I find no guilt in this man.’ But they were urgent, saying, ‘He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee even to this place.'” (23:4-5)
2. CRITERIA: “The Jewish Sanhedrin, hastily summoned at the hour of dawn, having elicited from Jesus the profession of His messiahship and deity, and having concluded on the death sentence, set themselves to induce Pilate, the Roman governor, to concur in their verdict. In order to do this, they urged that Jesus imperiled the Roman supremacy.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Pilate was accustomed to deal with men, and after careful examination, was satisfied that there was no ground for the death sentence. I find no fault. As God’s Paschal Lamb, the Savior was searched to discover if there were spot, or blemish, or anything that could invalidate His claim to sinlessness. Only the sinless could save sinners. In his heart Pilate knew that our Lord should be acquitted, but his fear of the Jews deflected the verdict of his conscience. By sending the case to Herod, he hoped to get the right thing done, without incurring the odium incident to doing it.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Jealousy and fear of the Jews.
5. EFFECT: “Pilate well understood the difference between armed forces and our Lord’s followers. But instead of being softened by Pilate’s declaration of his innocence, and considering whether they were not bringing the guilt of innocent blood upon themselves, the Jews were the more angry. The Lord brings his designs to a glorious end, even by means of those who follow the devices of their own hearts. Thus all parties joined, so as to prove the innocence of Jesus, who was the atoning sacrifice for our sins.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t mess with deity!

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before Herod): “When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. And when he learned that he belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him over to Herod, who was himself in Jerusalem at that time.” (23:6-7)
A. INFERENCE: “When Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him, and he was hoping to see some sign done by him. So he questioned him at some length, but he made no answer.” (23:8-9)
1. FINDINGS: “The chief priests and the scribes stood by, vehemently accusing him. And Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him. Then, arraying him in splendid clothing, he sent him back to Pilate.” (23:10-11)
2. CRITERIA: “Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before this they had been at enmity with each other.” (23:12)
3. CONDITION: “Pilate then called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, and said to them, ‘You brought me this man as one who was misleading the people. And after examining him before you, behold, I did not find this man guilty of any of your charges against him. Neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Look, nothing deserving death has been done by him. I will therefore punish and release him.” (23:13-17)
4. CAUSE: “Herod had heard many things of him in Galilee, and he longed to see him, but purely out of curiosity; and it was only to gratify this that he hoped to see him perform some miracle.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Miracles must not be made cheap, nor Omnipotence be at the beck and call of the greatest potentate.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t be indignant with deity!

III. KEY TEXT (Pilot Delivers Jesus to be Crucified): “But they all cried out together, ‘Away with this man, and release to us Barabbas’–a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection started in the city and for murder.” (23:18-19)
A. INFERENCE: “Pilot addressed them once more, desiring to release Jesus, but they kept shouting, ‘Crucify, crucify him!” (23:20-21)
1. FINDINGS: “A third time he said to them, ‘Why, what evil has he done? I have found in him no guilt deserving death. I will therefore punish and release him.’ But they were urgent, demanding with loud cries that he should be crucified. And their voices prevailed. So Pilate decided that their demands should be granted. He released the man who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered Jesus over to their will.” (23:22-25)
2. CRITERIA: “No basis for charges.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Even Herod sent him back to Pilot saying his crimes are not capital.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The people choose Barabbas released.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Pilot pleases the people.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t abuse deity.

IV. KEY TEXT (The Crucifixion): “And as they led him away, they seized one Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it behind Jesus. And there followed him a great multitude of the people and of women who were mourning and lamenting for him. But turning to them Jesus said, ‘Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for your selves and for your children.” (23:26-28)
A. INFERENCE: “For behold, the days are coming when they will say, Blessed are the barren and the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed! Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us.’ For if they do these things when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” (23:29-31)
1. FINDINGS: “Two others, who were criminals, were led away to be put to death with him. And when they came to the place that is called The Skull, there they crucified him, and the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. And Jesus said, ‘Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.’ And they cast lots to divide his garments. And the people stood by, watching, but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, ‘He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!’ The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine and saying, ‘If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!'” (23:32-37)
2. CRITERIA: “There was also an inscription over him, ‘This is the King of the Jews.'” (23:38)
3. CONDITION: “One of the criminals who were hanged railed at him, saying, ‘Are you not the Christ? Save yourself and us! But the other rebuked him, saying, ‘Do you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? And we indeed justly, for we are receiving the due reward of our deeds; but this man has done nothing wrong.’ And he said, ‘Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom. And he said to him, ‘Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.” (23:39-43)
4. CAUSE: “Crime: a grievance against the Roman government.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The people and priests drew up ‘subverting our nation’ as the slanderous charge against Jesus making him a rival against Caesar.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t slander deity.

V. KEY TEXT (The Death of Jesus): “It was now about the sixth hour (noon), and there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour (3:00pm) while the sun’s light failed.” (23:44-45)
A. INFERENCE: “And the curtain of the temple was torn in two (top to bottom).” (23:45)
1. FINDINGS: “Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!’ And having said this he breathed his last.” (23:46)
2. CRITERIA: “We have here the death of Christ magnified by the wonders that attended it, and his death explained by the words with which he breathed out his soul. He was willing to offer himself. Let us seek to glorify God by true repentance and conversion; by protesting against those who crucify the Savior; by a sober, righteous, and godly life; and by employing our talents in the service of Him who died for us and rose again.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Now when the centurion saw what had taken place, he praised God, saying, ‘Certainly this man was innocent!’ And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. And all his acquaintances and the women who had followed him from Galilee stood at a distance watching these things.” (23:47-49)
4. CAUSE: “He went to be with the Father and to make His life a guilt offering to give His life as a ransom for many.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The darkening of the sun at noon. The tearing of the curtain signified the taking away of the ceremonial law, and of all other difficulties and discouragements in our approaches to God, so that now we may approach the throne of grace with confidence.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Firmly believe in another life after this.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Is Buried): “Now there was a man named Joseph, from the Jewish town of Arimathea. He was a member of the council, a good and righteous man, who had not consented to the decision and action; and he was looking for the kingdom of God. This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then he took it down and wrapped it in a linen shroud and laid him in a tomb cut in stone, where no one had ever yet been laid.” (23:50-53)
A. INFERENCE: “It was the day of Preparation, and the Sabbath was beginning. The women who had come with him from Galilee followed and saw the tomb and how his body was laid. Then they returned and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.” (23:54-56)
1. FINDINGS: “God has His agents everywhere. They are not known to us, but are well known to Him, and one word from Him will bring them and their resources to His help.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “The body of our Lord was well cared for. They who commit themselves to God will find that He will make Himself responsible for the body, in life to feed and in death to honor; see Mat. 6:33; Deu. 34:6. The new tomb was so ordered that there could be no possible mistake in identifying the precious body, and that the Resurrection should be beyond question. Love, which clings to the last offices with tender solicitude hastened to express itself with a devotion that braved the hatred of the rulers. Darkness and silence settled on the scene-but this was not the end.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Many, though they do not make any show in outward profession, yet, like Joseph of Arimathea, will be far more ready to do real service, when there is occasion, than others who make a greater noise. Christ was buried in haste, because the Sabbath drew on. Weeping must not hinder sowing. Though they were in tears for the death of their Lord, yet they must prepare to keep holy the Sabbath. When the Sabbath draws on, there must be preparation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “God raised up a man named Joseph. His character is that he was a good and upright man, a man of unspotted reputation for virtue and piety.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Because of Preparation Day and the Sabbath about to begin, they made haste with the funeral.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Our worldly affairs must be so ordered, that they may not hinder us from our Sabbath work; and our holy affection so stirred up, that they may carry us on in it. In whatever business we engage, or however our hearts may be affected, let us never fail to get ready for, and to keep holy, the day of sacred rest, which is the Lord’s day.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 24:1, I. The Resurrection; II. On the Road to Emmaus; III. Jesus Appears to His Disciples; IV. The Ascension

I. KEY TEXT (The Resurrection): “But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they went to the tomb, taking the spices they had prepared. And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they went in they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.” (24:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel. And as they were frightened and bowed their faces to the ground, the men said to them, ‘Why do you seek the living among the dead? He is not here, but has risen. Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee, that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men and be crucified and on the third day rise.’ And they remembered his words, and returning from the tomb they told all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. Now it was Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary the mother of James and the other women with them who told these things to the apostles, but these words seemed to them an idle tale, and they did not believe them. ” (23:4-11)
1. FINDINGS: “But Peter rose and ran to the tomb; stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves; and he went home marveling at what had happened.” (23:12)
2. CRITERIA: “The most perplexing question for those who deny Christ’s resurrection is, “What became of His body if He did not rise?” If foes stole it, they would have produced it in disproof of the allegations of the Apostles. If friends had taken it, they would certainly have borne it off wrapped in the cerements of death; but these were left behind and wrapped together in such an orderly fashion that evidently there had been neither violence nor haste.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Notice the stress that the angels laid on Christ as the living one. They had doubtless overheard that sentence of His spoken in Galilee and recorded in Luke 9:22. Too many seek the living Christ amid the wrappings of ceremony and creed. He is not there. He has gone forth, and we must follow Him where Easter is breaking.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “See the affection and respect the women showed to Christ, after he was dead and buried. Observe their surprise when they found the stone rolled away, and the grave empty. Christians often perplex themselves about that with which they should comfort and encourage themselves. They look rather to find their Master in his grave-clothes, than angels in their shining garments. The angels assure them that he is risen from the dead; is risen by his own power.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Women were the first evangelist-messengers of the Resurrection. The very ardor of their belief seems to have prejudiced their message; the Apostles “dis-believed,” Luke 24:11 (R.V.). But the orderly arrangement of the tomb proved to Peter that clearly it had not been rifled.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We should avoid a backward view that he did not raise himself.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (On the Road to Emmaus): “That very day two of them were going to a village named Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem, and they were talking with each other about all these things that had happened. While they were talking and discussing together, Jesus himself drew near and went with them. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him.” (24:13-16)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘What is this conversation that you are holding with each other as you walk?’ And they stood still, looking sad. Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him, ‘Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who does not know the things that have happened there in these days?’ And he said to them, ‘What things?’ And they said to him, ‘Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, a man who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people, and how the chief priests and rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. Moreover, some women of our company amazed us. They were at the tomb early in the morning, and when they did not find his body, they came back saying that they had even seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see.'” (24:17-24)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said to them, ‘O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. So they drew near to the village to which they were going. He acted as if he were going farther, but they urged him strongly, saying, ‘Stay with us, for it is toward evening and the day is now far spent.’ So he went in to stay with them. When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed and broke it and gave it to them. And their eyes were opened, and they recognized him. And he vanished from their sight.” (24:25-31)
2. CRITERIA: “He rebukes them for the weakness of their faith in the scriptures of the Old Testament. He shows them that the sufferings of Christ were really the appointed way to his glory, and he could not go to it any other way. He expounded to them the scriptures of the Old Testament, and showed them how they were fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “They said to each other, ‘Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked to us on the road, while he opened to us the Scriptures?’ And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem. And they found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, saying, ‘The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!’ Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread.” (24:32-35)
4. CAUSE: Weak faith.
5. EFFECT: He immediately disappeared after explaining his return to glory.
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Were we more conversant in the scripture and the divine counsels as far as they are made known in the scripture, we should not be subject to such perplexities as we often entangle ourselves.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus Appears to His Disciples): “As they were talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, ‘Peace to you!’ But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw a spirit.” (24:36-37)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.'” (24:38-39)
1. FINDINGS: “And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. And while they still disbelieved for joy and were marveling, he said to them, ‘Have you anything here to eat?’ They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate before them.” (24:40-43)
2. CRITERIA: “Then he said to them, ‘These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.'” (24:44)
3. CONDITION: “Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them, ‘Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. And behold, I am sending the promise of my Father upon you. But stay in the city until you are clothed with power (Holy Spirit) from on high.'” (24:45-49)
4. CAUSE: “His resurrection.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The comfort Christ now spoke.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Take the proof he gave them of his resurrection, both for the silencing of their/our fears and for the strengthening of their/our faith.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Ascension): “Then he led them out as far as Bethany (Mount of Olives), and lifting up his hands he blessed them.” (24:50)
A. INFERENCE: He departed from the Mount of Olives and he will return to the Mount of Olives (after the rapture).
1. FINDINGS: “While he blessed them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven.” (24:51)
2. CRITERIA: “The disciples did not see him rise out of the grave because his resurrection was capable of being proved by their seeing him alive afterwards.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He lifted up his hands and blessed them in love.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “He loved them to the end.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They worshiped him. They returned to Jerusalem with great joy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The risen Savior is the key to Scripture. The pages of Holy Writ need the illumination that falls from His face. Whenever you open the Old Testament, described here under its customary Hebrew threefold division, be sure to ask Him to open your understanding also!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

John:1, I. The Word Became Flesh; II. The Testimony of John the Baptist; III. Behold, the Lamb of God; IV. Jesus Calls the First Disciples; V. Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael

I. KEY TEXT (The Word Became Flesh): “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.” (1:1-5)
A. INFERENCE: “There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to bear witness about the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but came to bear witness about the light.” (1:6-8)
1. FINDINGS: “The true light, which enlighten everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. But all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.” (1:9-13)
2. CRITERIA: “God spake and it was done. His words preceded the act of creation, but Christ was the Word or utterance of God. He who created time preceded time, and that which is before time is eternal and divine. Christ is the organ or medium by which God goes forth in creation, providence, and redemption. The life of God was stored in the human nature of Jesus, when the Word became flesh, that it might more readily pass into us. True life is always light, as the minute infusoria of the ocean are phosphorescent. When we receive Christ’s life, we shine.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John bore witness about him, and cried out, ‘This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.”) And from his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known.” (1:14-18)
4. CAUSE: “The blinded world knew Him not. Indeed, John 9:1-41 is a parable of mankind’s condition, 2Co. 4:4. Believing and receiving are the same thing. Let Christ in, and you have instantly the right to call yourself a child of God, Gal. 3:26. Only God can impart to us the germ of that life, which we share with the Son Himself, Jas. 1:18.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The plainest reason why the Son of God is called the Word, seems to be, that as our words explain our minds to others, so was the Son of God sent in order to reveal his Father’s mind to the world. What the evangelist says of Christ proves that he is God. He asserts, His existence in the beginning; His coexistence with the Father. The Word was with God. All things were made by him, and not as an instrument. Without him was not any thing made that was made, from the highest angel to the meanest worm. This shows how well qualified he was for the work of our redemption and salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us pray without ceasing, that our eyes may be opened to behold this Light, that we may walk in it; and thus be made wise unto salvation, by faith in Jesus Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Testimony of John the Baptist): “And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, ‘Who are you?'” (1:19)
A. INFERENCE: “He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, ‘I am not the Christ.’ And they asked him, ‘What then? Are you Elijah?’ He said, ‘I am not.’ ‘Are you the Prophet?’ And he answered, ‘No.’ So they said to him, ‘Who are you? We need to give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?’ He said, ‘I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of the Lord, as the prophet Isaiah said.'” (1:20-23)
1. FINDINGS: “(Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.) They asked him, ‘Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?’ John answered them, ‘I baptize with water, but among you stands one you do not know, even he who comes after me, the strap of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.’ These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan, where John was baptizing.” (1:24-28)
2. CRITERIA: “He was content to decrease before the greater whom he had been taught to expect and was sent to herald. There is a sense in which the preacher of repentance must always precede the Christ. There must be a putting away of known sin, previous to the recognition of the Lamb of God. But how great must Christ be, when so noble a man as the Baptist felt unworthy to unloose His sandals!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John the Baptist came to bear witness concerning Jesus. Nothing more fully shows the darkness of men’s minds, than that when the Light had appeared, there needed a witness to call attention to it. Christ was the true Light; that great Light which deserves to be called so. By his Spirit and grace he enlightens all that are enlightened to salvation; and those that are not enlightened by him, perish in darkness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Many say that they are Christ’s own, yet do not receive him, because they will not part with their sins, nor have him to reign over them. All the children of God are born again. This new birth is through the word of God as the means, 1 Peter 1:23, and by the Spirit of God as the Author.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “His Divine glory appeared in the holiness of his doctrine, and in his miracles. He was full of grace, fully acceptable to his Father, therefore qualified to plead for us; and full of truth, fully aware of the things he was to reveal.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He baptized the people with water as a profession of repentance, and as an outward sign of the spiritual blessings to be conferred on them by the Messiah, who was in the midst of them, though they knew him not, and to whom he was unworthy to render the meanest service.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Behold, the Lamb of God): “The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! This is he of whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who ranks before me, because he was before me.’ I myself did not know him, but for this purpose I came baptizing with water, that he might be revealed to Israel.'” (1:29-31)
A. INFERENCE: “And John bore witness: ‘I saw the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him.” (1:32)
1. FINDINGS: “I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. And I have seen and have borne witness that this is the Son of God.” (1:33-34)
2. CRITERIA: “The general reader of the story of our Lord’s baptism probably supposes that the sign of the descending dove and the sound of the Father’s voice were apprehended by all the crowd. This, however, was not the case. John had been previously informed that some day one, indicated by those signs, would come to His baptism. John was the porter of the door of the fold, and it was necessary to certify the true Shepherd when He appeared, John 10:3. To our Lord this was the beginning of His ministry. The heavenly powers were opened to Him, which He was in turn to open to all who believe and cooperate with Him for the regeneration of the world.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John saw Jesus coming to him, and pointed him out as the Lamb of God. The paschal lamb, in the shedding and sprinkling of its blood, the roasting and eating of its flesh, and all the other circumstances of the ordinance, represented the salvation of sinners by faith in Christ. And the lambs sacrificed every morning and evening, can only refer to Christ slain as a sacrifice to redeem us to God by his blood.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It agrees with God’s glory to pardon all who depend on the atoning sacrifice of Christ. He takes away the sin of the world; purchases pardon for all that repent and believe the gospel. This encourages our faith; if Christ takes away the sin of the world, then why not my sin? He bore sin for us, and so bears it from us.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “See Jesus taking away sin, and let that cause hatred of sin, and resolutions against it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us not hold that fast, which the Lamb of God came to take away.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus Calls the First Disciples): “The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples, and he looked at Jesus as he walked by and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God!'” (1:35-36)
A. INFERENCE: “The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. Jesus turned and saw them following and said to them, ‘What are you seeking?’ And they said to him, ‘Rabbi’ (which means Teacher), ‘where are you staying?’ He said to them, ‘Come and you will see.’ So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour.” (1:37-39)
1. FINDINGS: “One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, ‘We have found the Messiah’ (which means Christ). He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, ‘So you are Simon the son of John? You shall be called ‘Cephas’ (which means Peter).” (1:40-42)
2. CRITERIA: “On this third day John again looked eagerly and wistfully on Jesus as He walked. He spoke of Him again as God’s Lamb, and there was a significance in His words that was instantly detected by the two disciples-probably John and Andrew-who stood beside him. He intended to transfer their allegiance from himself to the Lord. Henceforth they were to behold Him. So, at least, they understood it. We are told that they followed Jesus.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John intended for his two disciples to follow Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “He did not reckon that he lost those disciples who went over from him to Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “John gathered disciples not for himself, but for Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Giving as did John, did not diminish himself; he increased Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael): “The next day Jesus decided to go to Galilee. He found Philip and said to him, ‘Follow me.’ Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip found Nathanael and said to him, ‘We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.’ Nathanael said to him, ‘Can anything good come out of Nazareth? Philip said to him, ‘Come and see.'” (1:43-46)
A. INFERENCE: “Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, ‘Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit!” (1:47)
1. FINDINGS: “Nathanael said to him, ‘How do you know me?’ Jesus answered him, ‘Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.’ Nathanael answered him, ‘Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” (1:48-49)
2. CRITERIA: “Jesus answered him, ‘Because I said to you, ‘I saw you under the fig tree,’ do you believe? You will see greater things than these.'” (1:50)
3. CONDITION: “And he said to him, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.'” (1:51)
4. CAUSE: “Jesus is always showing us greater things, John 1:50. He leads His disciples onward and upward, for He is Himself the ladder of ascent to God.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “See the nature of true Christianity, it is following Jesus; devoting ourselves to him, and treading in his steps. Observe the objection Nathaniel made. All who desire to profit by the word of God, must beware of prejudices against places, or denominations of men. They should examine for themselves, and they will sometimes find good where they looked for none. Many people are kept from the ways of religion by the unreasonable prejudices they conceive. The best way to remove false notions of religion, is to make trial of it. In Nathaniel there was no guile. His profession was not hypocritical. He was not a dissembler, nor dishonest; he was a sound character, a really upright, godly man.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us seek and pray to be Israelites indeed, in whom is no guile; truly Christians, approved of Christ himself. Some things weak, imperfect, and sinful, are found in all, but hypocrisy belongs not to a believer’s character.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

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