Week #131; Wed, Jul 01: Luke 12:1-16:31

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Luke 12:1, I. Beware of the Leaven of the Pharisees; II. Have No Fear; III. Acknowledge Christ Before Men; IV. The Parable of the Rich Fool; V. Do Not Be Anxious; VI. You Must Be Ready; VII. Not Peace But Division; VIII. Interpreting the Time; IX. Settle With Your Accuser

I. KEY TEXT (Beware of the Leaven of the Pharisees): “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. ” (12:1)
A. INFERENCE: “Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known.” (12:2)
1. FINDINGS: “Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light. and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops.” (12:3)
2. CRITERIA: “The leaven of evil always at work; the body tortured and killed; confession difficult, denial easy; the trials before synagogues and rulers; the anxiety of witnessing a good confession. The Lord never hesitated in stating the heavy tribulation through which His disciples must come to the Kingdom.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “He began with a caution against hypocrisy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Christ said this to the disciples, in the hearing of this great multitude, to add the greater weight to the caution, and to let the world know that he would not tolerate hypocrisy, no, not in his own disciples.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The description of that sin which he warns them against: It is the yeast of the Pharisees. It is yeast; it is spreading as leaven, insinuating itself into the whole man, and all that he does: it is swelling and souring as leaven, for it puffs men up with pride, embitters them with malace, and makes their service unacceptable to God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Take heed of imitating them; do not be hypocritical in Christianity as they are in Judaism.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (Have No Fear): “I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have nothing more that they can do.” (12:4)
A. INFERENCE: “But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him!” (12:5)
1. FINDINGS: “Are not five sparrows sold for two pennies? And not one of them is forgotten before God. Why, even the hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not; you are of more value than many sparrows.” (12:6-7)
2. CRITERIA: “Why should we flinch before a world in arms, so long as the Son of man stands for us, as He did for Stephen, at “the right hand of God?” The outward man may decay, but the inward man is renewed day by day.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “‘The power of your enemies is a limited power: I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Those whom Christ acknowledges as his friends need not be afraid of any enemies, ‘Do not be afraid, no, not of those who kill the body and after that can do no more.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “God is to be feared more than the most powerful men.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “By confessing Christ you may incur the wrath of men, but by denying Christ, and disowning him, you will incur the wrath of God, who has power to send you to hell.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Acknowledge Christ Before Men): “And I tell you, everyone who acknowledges me before men, the Son of Man also will acknowledge before the angels of God, but the one who denies me before men will be denied before the angels of God.” (12:8-9)
A. INFERENCE: “And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the one who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven.” (12:9)
1. FINDINGS: “And when they bring you before the synagogues and the rulers and the authorities, do not be anxious about how you should defend yourself or what you should say, for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say.” (12:10-12)
2. CRITERIA: “But let no trembling, penitent backslider doubt of obtaining forgiveness. This is far different from the determined enmity that is blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, which shall never be forgiven, because it will never be repented of.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “You will be owned or disowned through Christ according as you now own or disown him, ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “To engage us to acknowledge Christ before men, however dearly it may cost us, we are assured that they who acknowledge Christ now shall be acknowledged by him in the great day before the angels of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Jesus Christ will acknowledge, not only that he suffered for them, but that they suffered for him, and what greater honor can be done them?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “To deter us from disowning Christ we are here assured that those who disown Christ, whatever they may save by it, though it may be life itself, and whatever they may gain by it, will be vast losers in the end, for they shall be disowned before the angels of God; Christ will not know them, will not acknowledge them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Rich Fool): “Someone in the crowd said to him, ‘Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me.'” (12:13)
A. INFERENCE: “But he said to him, ‘Man, who made me a judge or arbitrator over you?'” (12:14)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said to them, ‘Take care, and be on your guard against all covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.’ And he told them a parable, saying, ‘The land of a rich man produced plentifully, and he thought to himself, ‘What shall I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ And he said, ‘I will do this: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grains and my goods.” (12:15-18)
2. CRITERIA: “And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; relax, eat, drink, be merry.'” (12:19)
3. CONDITION: “But God said to him, ‘Fool! This night your soul is required of you, and the things you have prepared, whose will they be? So is the one who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God.” (12:20-21)
4. CAUSE: “Christ’s kingdom is spiritual, and not of this world. Christianity does not meddle with politics; it obliges all to do justly, but worldly dominion is not founded in grace. It does not encourage expectations of worldly advantages by religion.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ will not assume either a legislative power, or a judicial power.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Now this shows us what is the nature and constitution of Christ’s kingdom. It is a spiritual kingdom, and not of this world.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (Do Not Be Anxious): “And he said to his disciples, ‘Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious about your life, what you will eat, nor about your body, what you will put on. For life is more than food, and the body more than clothing.” (12:22-23)
A. INFERENCE: “Consider the ravens: they neither sow nor reap, they have neither storehouse nor barn, and yet God feeds them. Of how much more value are you than the birds! And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life? If then you are not able to do as small a thing as that, why are you anxious about the rest? Consider the lilies, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin, yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass, which is alive in the field today, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith! And do not seek what your are to eat and what you are to drink, nor be worried. For all the nations of the world seek after these things, and your Father knows that you need them.” (13:24-30)
1. FINDINGS: “Instead, seek his kingdom, and these things will be added to you.” (12:31)
2. CRITERIA: “Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom. Sell your possessions, and give to the needy. Provide yourselves with money-bags that do not grow old, with a treasure in the heavens that does not fail, where no thief approaches and no moth destroys. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.” (12:32-34)
3. CONDITION: “Christ largely insisted upon this caution not to give way to disquieting, perplexing cares, Matthew 6:25-34. The arguments here used are for our encouragement to cast our care upon God, which is the right way to get ease. As in our stature, so in our state, it is our wisdom to take it as it is. An eager, anxious pursuit of the things of this world, even necessary things, ill becomes the disciples of Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Fears must not prevail; when we frighten ourselves with thoughts of evil to come, and put ourselves upon needless cares how to avoid it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “If we value the beauty of holiness, we shall not crave the luxuries of life. Let us then examine whether we belong to this little flock. Christ is our Master, and we are his servants; not only working servants, but waiting servants.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We must be as men that wait for their Lord, to be ready to receive him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

VI. KEY TEXT (You Must Be Ready): “Stay dressed for action and keep your lamps burning, and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the wedding feast, so that they may open the door to him at once when he comes and knocks.” (12:35-36)
A. INFERENCE: “Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will dress himself for service and have them recline at table, and he will come and serve them. If he comes in the second watch, or in the third, and finds them awake, blessed are those servants.” (12:37-38)
1. FINDINGS: “But know this, that if the master of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have left his house to be broken into. You also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.” (12:39)
2. CRITERIA: “Peter said, ‘Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for all?’ And the Lord said, ‘Who then is the faithful and wise manager, whom his master will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the proper time? Blessed is that servant whom his master will find so doing when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. But if that servant says to himself, ‘My master is delayed in coming,’ and begins to beat the male and female servants, and to eat and drink and get drunk, the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know, and will cut him in pieces and put him with the unfaithful. And that servant who knew his master’s will but did not get ready or act according to his will, will receive a severe beating. But the one who did not know, and did what deserved a beating, will receive a light beating. Everyone to whom much was given, of him much will be required, and from him to whom they entrusted much, they will demand the more.” (12:40-48)
3. CONDITION: “All are to take to themselves what Christ says in his word, and to inquire concerning it. No one is left so ignorant as not to know many things to be wrong which he does, and many things to be right which he neglects; therefore all are without excuse in their sin.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The Lord leads our thoughts on to His advent, when He will call His servants to account. The day may pass into the evening, the evening into the night, and the night may even begin to wear away to the morning, but the faithful servants keep their watch. Their loins are girt to serve, and the house is radiant with their trimmed lights. Presently He comes, and He raises His slaves to sit at His table! They are henceforth His friends-and His highly honored friends-whom He serves with His own hands.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Surely it couldn’t be for all. Yes, said our Lord in effect, to all who are faithful to their possibilities and use their position and gifts for others.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The greater our responsibility, the greater our condemnation, if we fail. Retribution is the inevitable penalty of infidelity to trust; but it will be precisely proportioned to our knowledge of the Lord’s will. There are degrees or grades in retribution as in glory.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

VII. KEY TEXT (Not Peace, But Division): “I came to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled! I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished!” (12:49-50)
A. INFERENCE: “Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth?” (12:51)
1. FINDINGS: “No, I tell you, but rather division. For from now on in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three. They will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.” (12:52-53)
2. CRITERIA: “As Prometheus, in the old Greek fable, brought fire from above in a reed, so Christ brought the fire of the Holy Spirit in the frail lantern of His humanity. But, first, He had to pass through a baptism of tears and blood. He was under pressure to enter it, because impatient to get through with it. Here was the prelude of Calvary. And what was true of our Lord must be true of His Church. Always the sword, always strife, always division, where the gospel begins to ferment like leaven in human hearts.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The signs of the time pointed to a climax of Hebrew history, for which most of His contemporaries were unprepared. The sands in God’s hour-glass were running out. This was the great requirement of the hour-get right with God. The warning is applicable to us all, but it was specially spoken of the brief interval which, like the silence that precedes a thunder storm, preceded the fall of Jerusalem.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “I have come to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled!” (12:49). (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Permitted as a refining fire for the trial of the persecuted.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Therefore let not the disciples of Christ promise themselves peace on earth.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VIII. KEY TEXT (Interpreting the Time): “He also said to the crowds, ‘When you see a cloud rising in the west, you say at once, ‘A shower is coming.’ And so it happens. And when you see the south wind blowing, you say, ‘There will be scorching heat,’ and it happens.” (12:54-55)
A. INFERENCE: “You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of earth and sky, but why do you not know how to interpret the present time?” (12:56)
1. FINDINGS: “In general, he desires them to be as wise in the affairs of their souls as they are in their outward affairs.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “This was the ruin of the men of that generation, that they did not recognize the time of God’s coming.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “If men would allow themselves the liberty of judging what is right, they would soon find that all Christ’s precepts concerning all things are right, and that there is nothing more just in itself, than to submit to them and be ruled by them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Let them hasten to be reconciled with God in time, before it is too late.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wise men will not let their quarrels go the bitter end, but settle them in time.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IX. KEY TEXT (Settle with Your Accuser): “And why do you not judge for yourselves what is right? As you go with your accuser before the magistrate, make an effort to settle with him on the way, lest he drag you to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the officer, and the officer put you in prison. I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the very last penny.” (12:57-59)
A. INFERENCE: “Christ would have the people to be as wise in the concerns of their souls as they are in outward affairs. Let them hasten to obtain peace with God before it is too late. If any man has found that God has set himself against him concerning his sins, let him apply to him as God in Christ reconciling the world to himself. While we are alive, we are in the way, and now is our time.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “This was the great requirement of the hour-get right with God. The warning is applicable to us all, but it was specially spoken of the brief interval which, like the silence that precedes a thunder storm, preceded the fall of Jerusalem.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Let us do thus in the affairs of our souls. We have through sin made God our adversary, and he has both right and might on his side. Christ, to whom all judgment is committed, is the magistrate before whom we are hastening to appear.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “While we are going, and now is our time.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “By repentance and faith, to get the quarrel made up, while it may be done, before it is too late.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Let us take hold of the arm of the Lord stretched out in this gracious offer, that we may make peace.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us work hard to be delivered out of the hands of God as an adversary.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Luke 13:1, I. Repent or Perish; II. The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree; III. A Woman with a Disabling Spirit; IV. The Mustard Seed and the Leaven; V. The Narrow Door; VI. Lament over Jerusalem

I. KEY TEXT (Repent or Perish): “There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. And he answered them, ‘Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered in this way?'” (13:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “‘No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.’ ‘Or those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them; do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who lived in Jerusalem?'” (13:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “‘No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.'” (13:5)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord did not hesitate to hang great lessons on passing events. It is a great art to lead men’s thoughts from the outward and transient to the unseen and eternal. God often gives us texts in the happenings of His providence, and when men’s hearts are awed and softened there is a conspicuous opportunity for striking home.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “We have no right to suppose that sudden disasters prove the presence of special sin in those who are involved in them. Sin is avenged in this life, but rather in the natural sequences than by some sudden “act of God.” Accidents are not necessarily punishments, and we who witness the sad fate of others have no right to congratulate ourselves on our moral or spiritual superiority. Instead of judging others, let us look to ourselves and repent.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “We cannot judge men’s sins by their sufferings in this world; for many are thrown into the furnace as gold to be purified, not as rubbish and chaff to be consumed.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “We must therefore not be harsh in our censures of those who are afflicted more than their neighbors, lest we add sorrow to the sorrowful.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “If we want to judge, we have enough to do to judge ourselves. Let us do as we would be done to.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree): “And he told this parable: ‘A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. And he said to the vinedresser, ‘Look, for three years now I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and I find none. Cut it down. Why should it use up the ground?’ And he answered him, ‘Sir, let it alone this year also, until I dig around it and put on manure. Then if it should bear fruit next year, well and good; but if not, you can cut it down.'” (13:6-9)
A. INFERENCE: “The parable of the fig-tree, with its three years of effort to secure fruitfulness, was intended primarily for the Jewish nation favored with our Lord’s three years of ministry. But it is of universal application. God is always seeking fruit; love is ever pleading, but sometimes may have to acquiesce in judgment.” (F. B. Meyer)
1. FINDINGS: “The parable primarily refers to the nation and people of the Jews.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “This parable of the barren fig-tree is intended to enforce the warning given just before: the barren tree, except it brings forth fruit, will be cut down. This parable in the first place refers to the nation and people of the Jews. Yet it is, without doubt, for awakening all that enjoy the means of grace, and the privileges of the visible church. When God has born long, we may hope that he will bear with us yet a little longer, but we cannot expect that he will bear always.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “God chose them for his own, made them a people close to him, expected them to give an account of their duty and obedience to him, which he would have considered fruit; but they disappointed his expectations; they were a reproach instead of a credit to their profession.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Christ graciously gave them further time and further mercy; tested them, as it were, another year, by sending his apostles among them, to repentance, and in Christ’s name to offer them pardon.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “. . . the body of the nation continued unrepentant and unfruitful, and ruin without remedy came upon them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The church of God is his vineyard. We are fig trees planted in this vineyard. It is a mark of favor. We must bear fruit.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (A Woman with a Disabling Spirit): “Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath. And there was a woman who had had a disabling spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not fully straighten herself. When Jesus saw her, he called her over and said to her, ‘Woman, you are freed from your disability.’ And he laid his hands on her, and immediately she was made straight, and she glorified God. But the ruler of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the people, ‘There are six days in which work ought to be done. Come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day.’ Then the Lord answered him, ‘You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from the manger and lead it away to water it? And ought not this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day? As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the people rejoiced at all the glorious things that were done by him.” (13:10-17)
A. INFERENCE: “Infirmity of any kind should drive us to the house of God. We shall meet Jesus there. When He says, loosed, all the powers of hell cannot bind us down. ‘He breaks the power of cancelled sin.'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Now to confirm the doctrine he preached, he performed a miracle, a miracle of mercy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “Though she was under this infirmity, yet she went to the synagogue on the Sabbath.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “The offer of this cure to one who did not seek it suggests the anticipatory mercy and grace of Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Those whose first and chief care is for their souls are also best serving the interests of their bodies.” ()
5. EFFECT: “The cure effectively and immediately performed speaks of his almighty power.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “When crooked souls are made straight, they will show it by glorifying God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Mustard Seed and the Leaven): “He said therefore, ‘What is the kingdom of God like/ And to what shall I compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his garden, and it grew and became a tree, and the birds of the air made nests in its branches.’ And again he said, ‘To what shall I compare the kingdom of God? It is like leaven that a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, until it was all leavened.” (13:18-20)
A. INFERENCE: “Here is the progress of the gospel foretold in two parables, as in Matthew 13. The kingdom of the Messiah is the kingdom of God. May grace grow in our hearts; may our faith and love grow exceedingly, so as to give undoubted evidence of their reality. May the example of God’s saints be blessed to those among whom they live; and may his grace flow from heart to heart, until the little one becomes a thousand.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Though the seed of the divine nature is sown in secret, it cannot remain secret, but works its way into manifestation. Man’s method is from without inward; God’s, from within outward. You cannot estimate the results when a little child receives the incorruptible seed, 1 Peter 1:23.” (F. B. Meyer)
2. CRITERIA: “Many perhaps were prejudiced against the gospel, because its beginning was so small. Christ wished to remove this prejudice, by assuring them that though its beginnings were humble, its future would be prosperous.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “You expect it will make its way by external means, but it shall work like yeast, silently and intangibly, and without any force or violence.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “A little leaven leavens the whole lump; so the doctrine of Christ will strangely diffuse its savor into the world of mankind.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “But you must give it time, and you will find it does wonders. By degrees the whole will be leavened.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Wait, give it time.

V. KEY TEXT (The Narrow Door): “He went on his way through towns and villages, teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem. And someone said to him, ‘Lord, will those who are saved be few?’ And he said to them, ‘Strive to enter through the narrow door. For many, I tell you, will seek to enter and will not be able. When once the master of the house has risen and shut the door, and you begin to stand outside and to knock at the door, saying, ‘Lord, open to us,’ then he will answer you, ‘I do not know where you come from.’ Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets. But he will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you come from. Depart from me, all you workers of evil! In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you yourselves cast out. And people will come from east and west, and from north and south, and recline at table in the kingdom of God. And behold, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last.'” (13:22-30)
A. INFERENCE: “But the entrance into the full power and blessedness of Christ is by a narrow way. The strait gate is open to all, but it means that we have to deny and leave behind all that is carnal, whether good or bad in the estimate of men, so that the divine life may have the entire field. Merely to eat and drink in Christ’s presence betrays a self-indulgence which is foreign to His Spirit. You may sit at the Lord’s table and yet be a worker of iniquity! We may be first in privilege, but last in grace. Luke 13:29-30 remind us of Acts 10:34-35 and Romans 2:13.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “If we reach heaven, we shall meet many there whom we little thought to meet, and miss many whom we expected to find.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Savior did not give a direct answer to this enquiry, for he came to guide men’s consciences, not to gratify their curiosity.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “All who will be saved must enter through the narrow door, and must submit to a strict discipline.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The reason why many come short of grace and glory is because they are content to seek lazily.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Their convictions are weak; their desires are cold, and their endeavors feeble, and there is no strength or steadiness in their resolve; and thus they fall short.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Make every effort to enter through the narrow door.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Lament over Jerusalem): “At that very hour some Pharisees came and said to him, ‘Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you.” (13:31)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I finish my course.” (13:32)
1. FINDINGS: “Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! Behold, your house is forsaken. And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'” (13:33-34)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord saw through and exposed his stratagem. How awful to be read by the light of divine purity! He also kept His eye on heaven’s dial-plate, and knew that He was immortal till His work was done.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ, in calling Herod a fox, gave him his true character. The greatest of men were accountable to God, therefore it became him to call this proud king by his own name; but it is not an example for us. I know, said our Lord, that I must die very shortly; when I die, I shall be perfected, I shall have completed my undertaking.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “‘I know that neither he nor anyone else can kill me until I have done my work.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “It is not in his power to hinder me. I must keep going preaching and healing, today, and tomorrow and the next day.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The judgment of the great day will convince unbelievers; but let us learn thankfully to welcome, and to profit by all who come in the name of the Lord, to call us to partake of his great salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 14:1, I. Healing of a Man on the Sabbath; II. The Parable of the Wedding Feast; III. The Parable of the Great Banquet; IV. The Cost of Discipleship; V. Salt Without Taste Is Worthless

I. KEY TEXT (Healing of a Man on the Sabbath): “One Sabbath, when he went to dine at the house of a ruler of the Pharisees, they were watching him carefully. And behold, there was a man before him who had dropsy. And Jesus responded to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath, or not?'” (14:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “But they remained silent. Then he took him and healed him and sent him away. And he said to them, ‘Which of you having a son or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out? And they could not reply to these things.” (14:4-6 and Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “This Pharisee, as well as others, seems to have had an ill design in entertaining Jesus at his house. But our Lord would not be hindered from healing a man, though he knew a clamor would be raised at his doing it on the Sabbath.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “It requires care to understand the proper connection between piety and charity in observing the Sabbath, and the distinction between works of real necessity and habits of self-indulgence. Wisdom from above, teaches patient perseverance in well-doing.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “. . . showing that His design was not so much to inculcate mere politeness or good manners, as underneath this to teach something deeper.” (14:11)
4. CAUSE: “When Christ asked them whether they thought it lawful to heal on the Sabbath they remained silent, for their intent was to inform against him, not to be informed by him.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They would not say it was lawful to heal, they could not for shame say it was not lawful.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Know “Christ will be justified when he speaks.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Wedding Feast): “Now he told a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the places of honor, saying to them, ‘When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, do not sit down in a place of honor, lest someone more distinguished than you be invited by him, and he who invited you both will come and say to you, ‘Give your place to this person,’ and then you will begin with shame to take the lowest place. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when your host comes he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at table with you. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted.” (14:7-11)
A. INFERENCE: “The whole of this is but a reproduction of Pr 25:6, 7. But it was reserved for the matchless Teacher to utter articulately, and apply to the regulation of the minutest features of social life, such great laws of the Kingdom of God, as that of Lu 14:11. (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “We must not only not allow any corrupt communication at our tables, but we must go beyond common harmless talk, and should take the opportunity from God’s goodness to us at our tables to speak well of him, and learn to spiritualize common things.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “He takes the opportunity to rebuke the guests for striving to take the place of honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He observed how these experts in the law and Pharisees desired the places of honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Even in the common actions of life, Christ’s eye is on us, and he notices what we do.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He observed how those who had such aspirations often made themselves vulnerable, and their reputation is impaired; whereas those who were modest, gained respect by it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It ought to check our exalted thoughts of ourselves to think how many there are who are more honorable than we, not only with respect to worldly dignity, but to personal merit and accomplishments.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Great Banquet): “He said also to the man who had invited him, ‘When you give a dinner or a banquet, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors, lest they also invite you in return and you be repaid. But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the just.” (14:12-14)
A. INFERENCE: “When one of those who reclined at table with him heard these things, he said to him, ‘Blessed is everyone who will eat bread in the kingdom of God!” (14:15)
1. FINDINGS: “But he said to him, ‘A man once gave a great banquet and invited many. And at the time for the banquet he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, ‘Come, for everything is now ready.’ But they all alike began to make excuses. The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, and I must go out and see it. Please have me excused.’ And another said, ‘I have five yoke of oxen, and I go to examine them. Please have me excused.’ And another said, ‘I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.’ So the servant came and reported these things to his master. Then the master of the house became angry and said to his servant, ‘Go out quickly to the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor and crippled and blind and lame.’ And the servant said, ‘Sir, what you commanded has been done, and still there is room.’ And the master said to the servant, ‘Go out to the highways and hedges and compel people to come in, that my house may be filled. For I tell you, none of those men who were invited shall taste my banquet.'” (14:16-24)
2. CRITERIA: “In this parable observe the free grace and mercy of God shining in the gospel of Christ, which will be food and a feast for the soul of a man that knows its own wants and miseries. All found some pretense to put off their attendance. This reproves the Jewish nation for their neglect of the offers of Christ’s grace. It shows also the backwardness there is to close with the gospel call.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The want of gratitude in those who slight gospel offers, and the contempt put upon the God of heaven thereby, justly provoke him. The apostles were to turn to the Gentiles, when the Jews refused the offer; and with them the church was filled.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The provision made for precious souls in the gospel of Christ, has not been made in vain; for if some reject, others will thankfully accept the offer. The very poor and low in the world, shall be as welcome to Christ as the rich and great; and many times the gospel has the greatest success among those that labor under worldly disadvantages and bodily infirmities.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ’s house shall at last be filled; it will be so when the number of the elect is completed.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Some of us get so much thanks down here that there will be very little left to come to us at the resurrection of the just, when we shall stand before the judgment seat of Christ to receive our rewards, 2 Co 5:10.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Cost of Discipleship): “Now great crowds accompanied him, and he turned and said to them, ‘If anyone comes to me and does not hate his own farther and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple.” (14:25-26)
A. INFERENCE: “Whoever does not bear his own cross and come after me cannot be my disciple. For which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it? Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him, saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish.’ Or what king, going out to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and deliberate whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? And if not, while the other is yet a great way off, he sends a delegation and asks for terms of peace.” (14:27-32)
1. FINDINGS: “So therefore, any one of you who does not renounce all that he has cannot be my disciple.'” (14:33)
2. CRITERIA: “Though the disciples of Christ are not all crucified, yet they all bear their cross, and must bear it in the way of duty. Jesus bids them count upon it, and then consider of it. Our Savior explains this by two similitudes; the former showing that we must consider the expenses of our religion; the latter, that we must consider the perils of it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Our love must be greater than the ties of family affection, Luke 14:26; must be greater than our love for our own way, which must be nailed to the Cross, Luke 14:27; must be greater than our love of possessions and property.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Christ has done more than any other teacher to cement the relationships of human love, but He always asks that they should be subordinated to the claims of God. Oh, for the love that Paul had! See Philippians 3:8.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “What a comfort it is to realize that God counted the cost before He set about the task of redemption, whether of a world or of us as individuals. He knew all that it would cost, and surely He did not begin what He cannot complete!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Better not begin (Rev 3:15), than begin and not finish.” (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)

V. KEY TEXT (Salt Without Taste Is Worthless): “Salt is good, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? It is of no use either for the soil or for the manure pile. It is thrown away. ‘He who has ears to hear, let him hear.'” (14:34-35)
A. INFERENCE: “Degenerate Christians, who rather than part with what they have in the world, will throw up their profession, are like salt that has lost its saltiness, that is the most useless worthless thing in the world; it has no manner of virtue or good property in it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
1. FINDINGS: “How can it be made salty again?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “You cannot make it salty again.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “This intimates that it is extremely difficult, and next to impossible, to bring back an apostate, Heb. 6:4-6” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “One who professes religion whose mind and manners are depraved is the most insipid animal that can be.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “It is abandoned: It is thrown out, they will have no more to do with it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Such scandalous people ought to be cast out of the church, because there is danger that others will be infected by them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Luke 15:1, I. The Parable of the Lost Sheep; II. The Parable of the Lost Coin; III. The Parable of the Prodigal Son

I. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Lost Sheep): “Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear him. And the Pharisees and the scribes grumbled, saying, ‘This man receives sinners and eats with them.” (15:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “So he told them this parable: ‘What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open country, and go after the one that is lost, until he finds it? And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep that was lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.” (15:3-7)
1. FINDINGS: “The parable of the lost sheep is very applicable to the great work of man’s redemption. The lost sheep represents the sinner as departed from God, and exposed to certain ruin if not brought back to him, yet not desirous to return. Christ is earnest in bringing sinners home.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “They that have left the fold in which they were nurtured in early life, and have gone over bleak mountains and through tangled brakes, find themselves in this exquisite picture. But the Lord is on their track. He cannot abide happily with the rest, while one sheep is liable to be torn by beasts of prey or caught away by eagles. He goes after it till He finds it.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Don’t you think, mother, that the Lord loves that child of yours, now far away, as much as you do? Cannot you trust Him to seek until He finds? Then He will ask you to rejoice with Him. Jesus not only receiveth sinners, but seeketh them.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Those who have always lived an outwardly correct life and who do not think themselves in need of repentance are the ninety and nine.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Rejoice.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “How careful then should we be that our repentance is unto salvation!” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Lost Coin): “Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it? And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors saying, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin that I had lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there is joy before the angels of God over one sinner who repents.'” (15:8-10)
A. INFERENCE: “In the parable of the lost piece of silver, that which is lost, is one piece, of small value compared with the rest. Yet the woman seeks diligently till she finds it. This represents the various means and methods God makes use of to bring lost souls home to himself, and the Savior’s joy on their return to him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Some have the King’s stamp on them, but have rolled away into the dark corner amid dust and shavings. Oh, that we were all more willing to go down on our knees to sweep the floor to find the lost! The nine links of a necklace are useless if the tenth is missing. Christ cannot be satisfied until the lost coin is found.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “This represents the various means and methods God makes use of to bring lost souls home to himself: he has lighted the lamp of the gospel, not to show himself the way to us, but to show us the way to him; his heart is on it, to bring lost souls to himself.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Those who rejoice desire that others should rejoice with them. The repentance and conversion of sinners on earth are matter of joy and rejoicing in heaven.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “It is possible that the greatest sinners may be brought to repentance.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “While there is life there is hope, and the worst are not to be despaired of. God will delight to show them mercy. God rejoices in all his works, but particularly in the works of his grace.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We are moved with a more conscious joy for the recovery of what we had lost than for the continuance of what we had always enjoyed, for health out of sickness than for health without sickness.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Prodigal Son): “And he said, ‘There was a man who had two sons. And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the share of property that is coming to me.’ And he divided his property between them. Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took a journey into a far country, and there he squandered his property in reckless living. And when he had spent everything, a severe famine arose in that country, and he began to be in need. So he went and hired himself out to one of the citizens of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed pigs. And he was longing to be fed with the pods that the pigs ate, and no one gave him anything.” (15:11-16)
A. INFERENCE: “But when he came to himself, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have more than enough bread, but I perish here with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son. Treat me as one of your hired servants.’ And he arose and came to his father. But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and felt compassion, and ran and embraced him and kissed him. And the son said to him, ‘Father I have sinned against heaven and before you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.” (15:17-21)
1. FINDINGS: “But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring quickly the best robe, and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. And bring the fattened calf and kill it, and let us eat and celebrate. For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.’ And they began to celebrate.” (15:22-24)
2. CRITERIA: “The parable of the prodigal son shows the nature of repentance, and the Lord’s readiness to welcome and bless all who return to him. It fully sets forth the riches of gospel grace; and it has been, and will be, while the world stands, of unspeakable use to poor sinners, to direct and to encourage them in repenting and returning to God.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Now his older son was in the field, and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants and asked what these things meant. And he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and sound.” (15:25-27)
4. CAUSE: “But he was angry and refused to go in.” (15:28)
5. EFFECT: “His father came out and entreated him, but he answered his father, ‘Look, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed your command, yet you never gave me a young goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. But when this son of yours came, who has devoured your property with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him! And he said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. It was fitting to celebrate and be glad, for this you brother was dead, and is alive; he was lost and is found.” (15:29-32)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The mercy and grace of our God in Christ, shine almost as bright in his tender and gentle bearing with peevish saints, as his receiving prodigal sinners upon their repentance. It is the unspeakable happiness of all the children of God, who keep close to their Father’s house, that they are, and shall be ever with him. Happy will it be for those who thankfully accept Christ’s invitation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 16:1, I. The Parable of the Dishonest Manager; II. The Law and the Kingdom of God; III. Divorce and Remarriage; IV. The Rich Man and Lazarus

I. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Dishonest Manager): “He also said to the disciples, ‘There was a rich man who had a manager, and charges were brought to him that this man was wasting his possessions. And he called him and said to him, ‘What is this that I hear about you? Turn in the account of your management, for you can no longer be manager.’ And the manager said to himself, ‘What shall I do, since my master is taking the management away from me? I am not strong enough to dig, and I am ashamed to beg. I have decided what to do, so that when I am removed from management, people may receive me into their houses'” (16:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “So summoning his master’s debtors one by one, he said to the first, ‘How much do you owe my master? He said, ‘A hundred measures of oil.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.’ Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ He said, ‘A hundred measures of wheat.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’ The master commended the dishonest manager for his shrewdness. For the sons of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their own generation than the sons of light. And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by means of unrighteous wealth, so that when it fails they may receive you into the eternal dwellings.” (16:5-9)
1. FINDINGS: “One who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much, and one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. If then you have not been faithful in the unrighteous wealth, who will entrust to you the true riches? And if you have not been faithful in that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own?” (16:10-12)
2. CRITERIA: “No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money.” (16:13)
3. CONDITION: “The Lord referred to in this parable commended not the fraud, but the policy of the steward. In that respect alone is it so noticed. Worldly men, in the choice of their object, are foolish; but in their activity, and perseverance, they are often wiser than believers. The unjust steward is not set before us as an example in cheating his master, or to justify any dishonesty, but to point out the careful ways of worldly men.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It would be well if the children of light would learn wisdom from the men of the world, and would as earnestly pursue their better object. The true riches signify spiritual blessings; and if a man spends upon himself, or hoards up what God has trusted to him, as to outward things, what evidence can he have, that he is an heir of God through Christ?” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The riches of this world are deceitful and uncertain.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us be convinced that those are truly rich, and very rich, who are rich in faith, and rich toward God, rich in Christ, in the promises; let us then lay up our treasure in heaven, and expect our portion from thence.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Law and the Kingdom of God): “The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things, and they ridiculed him. And he said to them, ‘You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts. For what is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God.” (16:14-15)
A. INFERENCE: “The Law and the Prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and everyone forces his way into it. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one dot of the Law to become void.” (16:16-17)
1. FINDINGS: “When our Lord spoke thus, the covetous Pharisees treated his instructions with contempt. But he warned them, that what they contended for as the law, was a wresting of its meaning.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “There are many covetous sticklers for the forms of godliness, who are the bitterest enemies to its power, and try to set others against the truth.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Our Master did not commend his fraud, but pointed out that the children of this world are singularly alive to their future and prepare for its contingencies. If they make a wrong use of money to provide for the future, how much more should Christians make a right use of it, so that when they die they may be welcomed to the eternal home by those whom they have benefited!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Money is described as unrighteous Mammon, the name of the heathen god of wealth. It is so often associated with cheating that the adjective is most appropriate. Note also that money is “the least” and “not that which is our own,” but God’s, to be used by us as His servants and at His direction.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “When Christ upbraids the Pharisees for justifying themselves, he means not that they acquired righteousness by acting properly, but that they ambitiously courted a reputation for righteousness of which they were destitute (Luke 16:15).” (Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin, p.476)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Go now and make a proud boast of your righteousness among men, while God in heaven abhors it (Luke 16:15).” (Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin, p.494)

III. KEY TEXT (Divorce and Remarriage): “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.” (16:18)
A. INFERENCE: “Far from intending to weaken the force of the law, in these allusions to a new economy, our Lord, in this unexpected way, sends home its high requirements with a pungency which the Pharisees would not fail to feel (Mat. 19:3-9 pertains; with the one exception of adultry noted). (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D., Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “There were some things condoned by the law, for the preventing of greater harm, the permission of which the gospel has indeed taken away, but without any detriment or disparagement to the law, as in the case of divorce.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “His gospel is intended to strike at the bitter root of men’s corrupt appetites and passions, to kill them, and pluck them up; and therefore they must not be so far indulged as that permission did indulge them, for the more they are indulged the more impetuous and headstrong they grow.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: Indulgences in corruption.
4. CAUSE: The sinful nature of fallen man.
5. EFFECT: Turn or burn.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Turn away from sin.

IV. KEY TEXT (The Rich Man and Lazarus): “There was a rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. And at his gate was laid a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, who desired to be fed with what fell from the rich man’s table. Moreover, even the dogs came and licked his sores.” (16:19-21)
A. INFERENCE: “The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried, and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. And he called out, “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in anguish in this flame.'” (16:22-24)
1. FINDINGS: “But Abraham said, ‘Child, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and Lazarus in like manner bad things; but now he is comforted here, and you are anguish. ” (16:25)
2. CRITERIA: “And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been fixed, in order that those who would pass from here to you may not be able, and none may cross from there to us.” (16:26)
3. CONDITION: “And he said, ‘Then I beg you, father, to send him to my father’s house–for I have five brothers–so that he may warn them, lest they also come into this place of torment.'” (16:27-28)
4. CAUSE: “But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.'” (16:29)
5. EFFECT: “And he said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’ He said to him, ‘If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.'” (16:30-31)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Circumstances in every age show that no terrors, or arguments, can give true repentance without the special grace of God renewing the sinner’s heart.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

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