Week #131; Wed, Jul 01: Luke 12–16

Week #131; Wed, Jul 01: Luke 12:1-16:31

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Luke 12:1, I. Beware of the Leaven of the Pharisees; II. Have No Fear; III. Acknowledge Christ Before Men; IV. The Parable of the Rich Fool; V. Do Not Be Anxious; VI. You Must Be Ready; VII. Not Peace But Division; VIII. Interpreting the Time; IX. Settle With Your Accuser

I. KEY TEXT (Beware of the Leaven of the Pharisees): “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. ” (12:1)
A. INFERENCE: “Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known.” (12:2)
1. FINDINGS: “Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light. and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops.” (12:3)
2. CRITERIA: “The leaven of evil always at work; the body tortured and killed; confession difficult, denial easy; the trials before synagogues and rulers; the anxiety of witnessing a good confession. The Lord never hesitated in stating the heavy tribulation through which His disciples must come to the Kingdom.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “He began with a caution against hypocrisy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Christ said this to the disciples, in the hearing of this great multitude, to add the greater weight to the caution, and to let the world know that he would not tolerate hypocrisy, no, not in his own disciples.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The description of that sin which he warns them against: It is the yeast of the Pharisees. It is yeast; it is spreading as leaven, insinuating itself into the whole man, and all that he does: it is swelling and souring as leaven, for it puffs men up with pride, embitters them with malace, and makes their service unacceptable to God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Take heed of imitating them; do not be hypocritical in Christianity as they are in Judaism.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (Have No Fear): “I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have nothing more that they can do.” (12:4)
A. INFERENCE: “But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him!” (12:5)
1. FINDINGS: “Are not five sparrows sold for two pennies? And not one of them is forgotten before God. Why, even the hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not; you are of more value than many sparrows.” (12:6-7)
2. CRITERIA: “Why should we flinch before a world in arms, so long as the Son of man stands for us, as He did for Stephen, at “the right hand of God?” The outward man may decay, but the inward man is renewed day by day.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “‘The power of your enemies is a limited power: I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Those whom Christ acknowledges as his friends need not be afraid of any enemies, ‘Do not be afraid, no, not of those who kill the body and after that can do no more.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “God is to be feared more than the most powerful men.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “By confessing Christ you may incur the wrath of men, but by denying Christ, and disowning him, you will incur the wrath of God, who has power to send you to hell.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Acknowledge Christ Before Men): “And I tell you, everyone who acknowledges me before men, the Son of Man also will acknowledge before the angels of God, but the one who denies me before men will be denied before the angels of God.” (12:8-9)
A. INFERENCE: “And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but the one who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven.” (12:9)
1. FINDINGS: “And when they bring you before the synagogues and the rulers and the authorities, do not be anxious about how you should defend yourself or what you should say, for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say.” (12:10-12)
2. CRITERIA: “But let no trembling, penitent backslider doubt of obtaining forgiveness. This is far different from the determined enmity that is blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, which shall never be forgiven, because it will never be repented of.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “You will be owned or disowned through Christ according as you now own or disown him, ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “To engage us to acknowledge Christ before men, however dearly it may cost us, we are assured that they who acknowledge Christ now shall be acknowledged by him in the great day before the angels of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Jesus Christ will acknowledge, not only that he suffered for them, but that they suffered for him, and what greater honor can be done them?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “To deter us from disowning Christ we are here assured that those who disown Christ, whatever they may save by it, though it may be life itself, and whatever they may gain by it, will be vast losers in the end, for they shall be disowned before the angels of God; Christ will not know them, will not acknowledge them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Rich Fool): “Someone in the crowd said to him, ‘Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me.'” (12:13)
A. INFERENCE: “But he said to him, ‘Man, who made me a judge or arbitrator over you?'” (12:14)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said to them, ‘Take care, and be on your guard against all covetousness, for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.’ And he told them a parable, saying, ‘The land of a rich man produced plentifully, and he thought to himself, ‘What shall I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ And he said, ‘I will do this: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grains and my goods.” (12:15-18)
2. CRITERIA: “And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; relax, eat, drink, be merry.'” (12:19)
3. CONDITION: “But God said to him, ‘Fool! This night your soul is required of you, and the things you have prepared, whose will they be? So is the one who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God.” (12:20-21)
4. CAUSE: “Christ’s kingdom is spiritual, and not of this world. Christianity does not meddle with politics; it obliges all to do justly, but worldly dominion is not founded in grace. It does not encourage expectations of worldly advantages by religion.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ will not assume either a legislative power, or a judicial power.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Now this shows us what is the nature and constitution of Christ’s kingdom. It is a spiritual kingdom, and not of this world.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (Do Not Be Anxious): “And he said to his disciples, ‘Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious about your life, what you will eat, nor about your body, what you will put on. For life is more than food, and the body more than clothing.” (12:22-23)
A. INFERENCE: “Consider the ravens: they neither sow nor reap, they have neither storehouse nor barn, and yet God feeds them. Of how much more value are you than the birds! And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life? If then you are not able to do as small a thing as that, why are you anxious about the rest? Consider the lilies, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin, yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass, which is alive in the field today, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith! And do not seek what your are to eat and what you are to drink, nor be worried. For all the nations of the world seek after these things, and your Father knows that you need them.” (13:24-30)
1. FINDINGS: “Instead, seek his kingdom, and these things will be added to you.” (12:31)
2. CRITERIA: “Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom. Sell your possessions, and give to the needy. Provide yourselves with money-bags that do not grow old, with a treasure in the heavens that does not fail, where no thief approaches and no moth destroys. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.” (12:32-34)
3. CONDITION: “Christ largely insisted upon this caution not to give way to disquieting, perplexing cares, Matthew 6:25-34. The arguments here used are for our encouragement to cast our care upon God, which is the right way to get ease. As in our stature, so in our state, it is our wisdom to take it as it is. An eager, anxious pursuit of the things of this world, even necessary things, ill becomes the disciples of Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Fears must not prevail; when we frighten ourselves with thoughts of evil to come, and put ourselves upon needless cares how to avoid it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “If we value the beauty of holiness, we shall not crave the luxuries of life. Let us then examine whether we belong to this little flock. Christ is our Master, and we are his servants; not only working servants, but waiting servants.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We must be as men that wait for their Lord, to be ready to receive him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

VI. KEY TEXT (You Must Be Ready): “Stay dressed for action and keep your lamps burning, and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the wedding feast, so that they may open the door to him at once when he comes and knocks.” (12:35-36)
A. INFERENCE: “Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will dress himself for service and have them recline at table, and he will come and serve them. If he comes in the second watch, or in the third, and finds them awake, blessed are those servants.” (12:37-38)
1. FINDINGS: “But know this, that if the master of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have left his house to be broken into. You also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.” (12:39)
2. CRITERIA: “Peter said, ‘Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for all?’ And the Lord said, ‘Who then is the faithful and wise manager, whom his master will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the proper time? Blessed is that servant whom his master will find so doing when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. But if that servant says to himself, ‘My master is delayed in coming,’ and begins to beat the male and female servants, and to eat and drink and get drunk, the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know, and will cut him in pieces and put him with the unfaithful. And that servant who knew his master’s will but did not get ready or act according to his will, will receive a severe beating. But the one who did not know, and did what deserved a beating, will receive a light beating. Everyone to whom much was given, of him much will be required, and from him to whom they entrusted much, they will demand the more.” (12:40-48)
3. CONDITION: “All are to take to themselves what Christ says in his word, and to inquire concerning it. No one is left so ignorant as not to know many things to be wrong which he does, and many things to be right which he neglects; therefore all are without excuse in their sin.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The Lord leads our thoughts on to His advent, when He will call His servants to account. The day may pass into the evening, the evening into the night, and the night may even begin to wear away to the morning, but the faithful servants keep their watch. Their loins are girt to serve, and the house is radiant with their trimmed lights. Presently He comes, and He raises His slaves to sit at His table! They are henceforth His friends-and His highly honored friends-whom He serves with His own hands.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Surely it couldn’t be for all. Yes, said our Lord in effect, to all who are faithful to their possibilities and use their position and gifts for others.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The greater our responsibility, the greater our condemnation, if we fail. Retribution is the inevitable penalty of infidelity to trust; but it will be precisely proportioned to our knowledge of the Lord’s will. There are degrees or grades in retribution as in glory.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

VII. KEY TEXT (Not Peace, But Division): “I came to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled! I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished!” (12:49-50)
A. INFERENCE: “Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth?” (12:51)
1. FINDINGS: “No, I tell you, but rather division. For from now on in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three. They will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against mother-in-law.” (12:52-53)
2. CRITERIA: “As Prometheus, in the old Greek fable, brought fire from above in a reed, so Christ brought the fire of the Holy Spirit in the frail lantern of His humanity. But, first, He had to pass through a baptism of tears and blood. He was under pressure to enter it, because impatient to get through with it. Here was the prelude of Calvary. And what was true of our Lord must be true of His Church. Always the sword, always strife, always division, where the gospel begins to ferment like leaven in human hearts.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The signs of the time pointed to a climax of Hebrew history, for which most of His contemporaries were unprepared. The sands in God’s hour-glass were running out. This was the great requirement of the hour-get right with God. The warning is applicable to us all, but it was specially spoken of the brief interval which, like the silence that precedes a thunder storm, preceded the fall of Jerusalem.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “I have come to cast fire on the earth, and would that it were already kindled!” (12:49). (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Permitted as a refining fire for the trial of the persecuted.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Therefore let not the disciples of Christ promise themselves peace on earth.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VIII. KEY TEXT (Interpreting the Time): “He also said to the crowds, ‘When you see a cloud rising in the west, you say at once, ‘A shower is coming.’ And so it happens. And when you see the south wind blowing, you say, ‘There will be scorching heat,’ and it happens.” (12:54-55)
A. INFERENCE: “You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of earth and sky, but why do you not know how to interpret the present time?” (12:56)
1. FINDINGS: “In general, he desires them to be as wise in the affairs of their souls as they are in their outward affairs.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “This was the ruin of the men of that generation, that they did not recognize the time of God’s coming.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “If men would allow themselves the liberty of judging what is right, they would soon find that all Christ’s precepts concerning all things are right, and that there is nothing more just in itself, than to submit to them and be ruled by them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Let them hasten to be reconciled with God in time, before it is too late.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wise men will not let their quarrels go the bitter end, but settle them in time.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IX. KEY TEXT (Settle with Your Accuser): “And why do you not judge for yourselves what is right? As you go with your accuser before the magistrate, make an effort to settle with him on the way, lest he drag you to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the officer, and the officer put you in prison. I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the very last penny.” (12:57-59)
A. INFERENCE: “Christ would have the people to be as wise in the concerns of their souls as they are in outward affairs. Let them hasten to obtain peace with God before it is too late. If any man has found that God has set himself against him concerning his sins, let him apply to him as God in Christ reconciling the world to himself. While we are alive, we are in the way, and now is our time.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “This was the great requirement of the hour-get right with God. The warning is applicable to us all, but it was specially spoken of the brief interval which, like the silence that precedes a thunder storm, preceded the fall of Jerusalem.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Let us do thus in the affairs of our souls. We have through sin made God our adversary, and he has both right and might on his side. Christ, to whom all judgment is committed, is the magistrate before whom we are hastening to appear.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “While we are going, and now is our time.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “By repentance and faith, to get the quarrel made up, while it may be done, before it is too late.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Let us take hold of the arm of the Lord stretched out in this gracious offer, that we may make peace.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us work hard to be delivered out of the hands of God as an adversary.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Luke 13:1, I. Repent or Perish; II. The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree; III. A Woman with a Disabling Spirit; IV. The Mustard Seed and the Leaven; V. The Narrow Door; VI. Lament over Jerusalem

I. KEY TEXT (Repent or Perish): “There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. And he answered them, ‘Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered in this way?'” (13:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “‘No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.’ ‘Or those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them; do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who lived in Jerusalem?'” (13:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “‘No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.'” (13:5)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord did not hesitate to hang great lessons on passing events. It is a great art to lead men’s thoughts from the outward and transient to the unseen and eternal. God often gives us texts in the happenings of His providence, and when men’s hearts are awed and softened there is a conspicuous opportunity for striking home.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “We have no right to suppose that sudden disasters prove the presence of special sin in those who are involved in them. Sin is avenged in this life, but rather in the natural sequences than by some sudden “act of God.” Accidents are not necessarily punishments, and we who witness the sad fate of others have no right to congratulate ourselves on our moral or spiritual superiority. Instead of judging others, let us look to ourselves and repent.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “We cannot judge men’s sins by their sufferings in this world; for many are thrown into the furnace as gold to be purified, not as rubbish and chaff to be consumed.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “We must therefore not be harsh in our censures of those who are afflicted more than their neighbors, lest we add sorrow to the sorrowful.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “If we want to judge, we have enough to do to judge ourselves. Let us do as we would be done to.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree): “And he told this parable: ‘A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. And he said to the vinedresser, ‘Look, for three years now I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and I find none. Cut it down. Why should it use up the ground?’ And he answered him, ‘Sir, let it alone this year also, until I dig around it and put on manure. Then if it should bear fruit next year, well and good; but if not, you can cut it down.'” (13:6-9)
A. INFERENCE: “The parable of the fig-tree, with its three years of effort to secure fruitfulness, was intended primarily for the Jewish nation favored with our Lord’s three years of ministry. But it is of universal application. God is always seeking fruit; love is ever pleading, but sometimes may have to acquiesce in judgment.” (F. B. Meyer)
1. FINDINGS: “The parable primarily refers to the nation and people of the Jews.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “This parable of the barren fig-tree is intended to enforce the warning given just before: the barren tree, except it brings forth fruit, will be cut down. This parable in the first place refers to the nation and people of the Jews. Yet it is, without doubt, for awakening all that enjoy the means of grace, and the privileges of the visible church. When God has born long, we may hope that he will bear with us yet a little longer, but we cannot expect that he will bear always.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “God chose them for his own, made them a people close to him, expected them to give an account of their duty and obedience to him, which he would have considered fruit; but they disappointed his expectations; they were a reproach instead of a credit to their profession.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Christ graciously gave them further time and further mercy; tested them, as it were, another year, by sending his apostles among them, to repentance, and in Christ’s name to offer them pardon.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “. . . the body of the nation continued unrepentant and unfruitful, and ruin without remedy came upon them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The church of God is his vineyard. We are fig trees planted in this vineyard. It is a mark of favor. We must bear fruit.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (A Woman with a Disabling Spirit): “Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath. And there was a woman who had had a disabling spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not fully straighten herself. When Jesus saw her, he called her over and said to her, ‘Woman, you are freed from your disability.’ And he laid his hands on her, and immediately she was made straight, and she glorified God. But the ruler of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the people, ‘There are six days in which work ought to be done. Come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day.’ Then the Lord answered him, ‘You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from the manger and lead it away to water it? And ought not this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day? As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the people rejoiced at all the glorious things that were done by him.” (13:10-17)
A. INFERENCE: “Infirmity of any kind should drive us to the house of God. We shall meet Jesus there. When He says, loosed, all the powers of hell cannot bind us down. ‘He breaks the power of cancelled sin.'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Now to confirm the doctrine he preached, he performed a miracle, a miracle of mercy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “Though she was under this infirmity, yet she went to the synagogue on the Sabbath.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “The offer of this cure to one who did not seek it suggests the anticipatory mercy and grace of Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Those whose first and chief care is for their souls are also best serving the interests of their bodies.” ()
5. EFFECT: “The cure effectively and immediately performed speaks of his almighty power.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “When crooked souls are made straight, they will show it by glorifying God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Mustard Seed and the Leaven): “He said therefore, ‘What is the kingdom of God like/ And to what shall I compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his garden, and it grew and became a tree, and the birds of the air made nests in its branches.’ And again he said, ‘To what shall I compare the kingdom of God? It is like leaven that a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, until it was all leavened.” (13:18-20)
A. INFERENCE: “Here is the progress of the gospel foretold in two parables, as in Matthew 13. The kingdom of the Messiah is the kingdom of God. May grace grow in our hearts; may our faith and love grow exceedingly, so as to give undoubted evidence of their reality. May the example of God’s saints be blessed to those among whom they live; and may his grace flow from heart to heart, until the little one becomes a thousand.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Though the seed of the divine nature is sown in secret, it cannot remain secret, but works its way into manifestation. Man’s method is from without inward; God’s, from within outward. You cannot estimate the results when a little child receives the incorruptible seed, 1 Peter 1:23.” (F. B. Meyer)
2. CRITERIA: “Many perhaps were prejudiced against the gospel, because its beginning was so small. Christ wished to remove this prejudice, by assuring them that though its beginnings were humble, its future would be prosperous.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “You expect it will make its way by external means, but it shall work like yeast, silently and intangibly, and without any force or violence.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “A little leaven leavens the whole lump; so the doctrine of Christ will strangely diffuse its savor into the world of mankind.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “But you must give it time, and you will find it does wonders. By degrees the whole will be leavened.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Wait, give it time.

V. KEY TEXT (The Narrow Door): “He went on his way through towns and villages, teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem. And someone said to him, ‘Lord, will those who are saved be few?’ And he said to them, ‘Strive to enter through the narrow door. For many, I tell you, will seek to enter and will not be able. When once the master of the house has risen and shut the door, and you begin to stand outside and to knock at the door, saying, ‘Lord, open to us,’ then he will answer you, ‘I do not know where you come from.’ Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets. But he will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you come from. Depart from me, all you workers of evil! In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you yourselves cast out. And people will come from east and west, and from north and south, and recline at table in the kingdom of God. And behold, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last.'” (13:22-30)
A. INFERENCE: “But the entrance into the full power and blessedness of Christ is by a narrow way. The strait gate is open to all, but it means that we have to deny and leave behind all that is carnal, whether good or bad in the estimate of men, so that the divine life may have the entire field. Merely to eat and drink in Christ’s presence betrays a self-indulgence which is foreign to His Spirit. You may sit at the Lord’s table and yet be a worker of iniquity! We may be first in privilege, but last in grace. Luke 13:29-30 remind us of Acts 10:34-35 and Romans 2:13.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “If we reach heaven, we shall meet many there whom we little thought to meet, and miss many whom we expected to find.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Savior did not give a direct answer to this enquiry, for he came to guide men’s consciences, not to gratify their curiosity.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “All who will be saved must enter through the narrow door, and must submit to a strict discipline.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The reason why many come short of grace and glory is because they are content to seek lazily.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Their convictions are weak; their desires are cold, and their endeavors feeble, and there is no strength or steadiness in their resolve; and thus they fall short.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Make every effort to enter through the narrow door.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Lament over Jerusalem): “At that very hour some Pharisees came and said to him, ‘Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you.” (13:31)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I finish my course.” (13:32)
1. FINDINGS: “Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! Behold, your house is forsaken. And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'” (13:33-34)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord saw through and exposed his stratagem. How awful to be read by the light of divine purity! He also kept His eye on heaven’s dial-plate, and knew that He was immortal till His work was done.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ, in calling Herod a fox, gave him his true character. The greatest of men were accountable to God, therefore it became him to call this proud king by his own name; but it is not an example for us. I know, said our Lord, that I must die very shortly; when I die, I shall be perfected, I shall have completed my undertaking.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “‘I know that neither he nor anyone else can kill me until I have done my work.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “It is not in his power to hinder me. I must keep going preaching and healing, today, and tomorrow and the next day.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The judgment of the great day will convince unbelievers; but let us learn thankfully to welcome, and to profit by all who come in the name of the Lord, to call us to partake of his great salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 14:1, I. Healing of a Man on the Sabbath; II. The Parable of the Wedding Feast; III. The Parable of the Great Banquet; IV. The Cost of Discipleship; V. Salt Without Taste Is Worthless

I. KEY TEXT (Healing of a Man on the Sabbath): “One Sabbath, when he went to dine at the house of a ruler of the Pharisees, they were watching him carefully. And behold, there was a man before him who had dropsy. And Jesus responded to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath, or not?'” (14:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “But they remained silent. Then he took him and healed him and sent him away. And he said to them, ‘Which of you having a son or an ox that has fallen into a well on a Sabbath day, will not immediately pull him out? And they could not reply to these things.” (14:4-6 and Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “This Pharisee, as well as others, seems to have had an ill design in entertaining Jesus at his house. But our Lord would not be hindered from healing a man, though he knew a clamor would be raised at his doing it on the Sabbath.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “It requires care to understand the proper connection between piety and charity in observing the Sabbath, and the distinction between works of real necessity and habits of self-indulgence. Wisdom from above, teaches patient perseverance in well-doing.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “. . . showing that His design was not so much to inculcate mere politeness or good manners, as underneath this to teach something deeper.” (14:11)
4. CAUSE: “When Christ asked them whether they thought it lawful to heal on the Sabbath they remained silent, for their intent was to inform against him, not to be informed by him.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They would not say it was lawful to heal, they could not for shame say it was not lawful.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Know “Christ will be justified when he speaks.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Wedding Feast): “Now he told a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the places of honor, saying to them, ‘When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, do not sit down in a place of honor, lest someone more distinguished than you be invited by him, and he who invited you both will come and say to you, ‘Give your place to this person,’ and then you will begin with shame to take the lowest place. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when your host comes he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at table with you. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted.” (14:7-11)
A. INFERENCE: “The whole of this is but a reproduction of Pr 25:6, 7. But it was reserved for the matchless Teacher to utter articulately, and apply to the regulation of the minutest features of social life, such great laws of the Kingdom of God, as that of Lu 14:11. (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “We must not only not allow any corrupt communication at our tables, but we must go beyond common harmless talk, and should take the opportunity from God’s goodness to us at our tables to speak well of him, and learn to spiritualize common things.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “He takes the opportunity to rebuke the guests for striving to take the place of honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He observed how these experts in the law and Pharisees desired the places of honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Even in the common actions of life, Christ’s eye is on us, and he notices what we do.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He observed how those who had such aspirations often made themselves vulnerable, and their reputation is impaired; whereas those who were modest, gained respect by it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It ought to check our exalted thoughts of ourselves to think how many there are who are more honorable than we, not only with respect to worldly dignity, but to personal merit and accomplishments.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Great Banquet): “He said also to the man who had invited him, ‘When you give a dinner or a banquet, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors, lest they also invite you in return and you be repaid. But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the just.” (14:12-14)
A. INFERENCE: “When one of those who reclined at table with him heard these things, he said to him, ‘Blessed is everyone who will eat bread in the kingdom of God!” (14:15)
1. FINDINGS: “But he said to him, ‘A man once gave a great banquet and invited many. And at the time for the banquet he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, ‘Come, for everything is now ready.’ But they all alike began to make excuses. The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, and I must go out and see it. Please have me excused.’ And another said, ‘I have five yoke of oxen, and I go to examine them. Please have me excused.’ And another said, ‘I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.’ So the servant came and reported these things to his master. Then the master of the house became angry and said to his servant, ‘Go out quickly to the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor and crippled and blind and lame.’ And the servant said, ‘Sir, what you commanded has been done, and still there is room.’ And the master said to the servant, ‘Go out to the highways and hedges and compel people to come in, that my house may be filled. For I tell you, none of those men who were invited shall taste my banquet.'” (14:16-24)
2. CRITERIA: “In this parable observe the free grace and mercy of God shining in the gospel of Christ, which will be food and a feast for the soul of a man that knows its own wants and miseries. All found some pretense to put off their attendance. This reproves the Jewish nation for their neglect of the offers of Christ’s grace. It shows also the backwardness there is to close with the gospel call.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The want of gratitude in those who slight gospel offers, and the contempt put upon the God of heaven thereby, justly provoke him. The apostles were to turn to the Gentiles, when the Jews refused the offer; and with them the church was filled.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The provision made for precious souls in the gospel of Christ, has not been made in vain; for if some reject, others will thankfully accept the offer. The very poor and low in the world, shall be as welcome to Christ as the rich and great; and many times the gospel has the greatest success among those that labor under worldly disadvantages and bodily infirmities.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ’s house shall at last be filled; it will be so when the number of the elect is completed.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Some of us get so much thanks down here that there will be very little left to come to us at the resurrection of the just, when we shall stand before the judgment seat of Christ to receive our rewards, 2 Co 5:10.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Cost of Discipleship): “Now great crowds accompanied him, and he turned and said to them, ‘If anyone comes to me and does not hate his own farther and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple.” (14:25-26)
A. INFERENCE: “Whoever does not bear his own cross and come after me cannot be my disciple. For which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it? Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him, saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish.’ Or what king, going out to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and deliberate whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? And if not, while the other is yet a great way off, he sends a delegation and asks for terms of peace.” (14:27-32)
1. FINDINGS: “So therefore, any one of you who does not renounce all that he has cannot be my disciple.'” (14:33)
2. CRITERIA: “Though the disciples of Christ are not all crucified, yet they all bear their cross, and must bear it in the way of duty. Jesus bids them count upon it, and then consider of it. Our Savior explains this by two similitudes; the former showing that we must consider the expenses of our religion; the latter, that we must consider the perils of it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Our love must be greater than the ties of family affection, Luke 14:26; must be greater than our love for our own way, which must be nailed to the Cross, Luke 14:27; must be greater than our love of possessions and property.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Christ has done more than any other teacher to cement the relationships of human love, but He always asks that they should be subordinated to the claims of God. Oh, for the love that Paul had! See Philippians 3:8.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “What a comfort it is to realize that God counted the cost before He set about the task of redemption, whether of a world or of us as individuals. He knew all that it would cost, and surely He did not begin what He cannot complete!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Better not begin (Rev 3:15), than begin and not finish.” (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)

V. KEY TEXT (Salt Without Taste Is Worthless): “Salt is good, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? It is of no use either for the soil or for the manure pile. It is thrown away. ‘He who has ears to hear, let him hear.'” (14:34-35)
A. INFERENCE: “Degenerate Christians, who rather than part with what they have in the world, will throw up their profession, are like salt that has lost its saltiness, that is the most useless worthless thing in the world; it has no manner of virtue or good property in it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
1. FINDINGS: “How can it be made salty again?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “You cannot make it salty again.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “This intimates that it is extremely difficult, and next to impossible, to bring back an apostate, Heb. 6:4-6” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “One who professes religion whose mind and manners are depraved is the most insipid animal that can be.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “It is abandoned: It is thrown out, they will have no more to do with it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Such scandalous people ought to be cast out of the church, because there is danger that others will be infected by them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Luke 15:1, I. The Parable of the Lost Sheep; II. The Parable of the Lost Coin; III. The Parable of the Prodigal Son

I. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Lost Sheep): “Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear him. And the Pharisees and the scribes grumbled, saying, ‘This man receives sinners and eats with them.” (15:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “So he told them this parable: ‘What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open country, and go after the one that is lost, until he finds it? And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep that was lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.” (15:3-7)
1. FINDINGS: “The parable of the lost sheep is very applicable to the great work of man’s redemption. The lost sheep represents the sinner as departed from God, and exposed to certain ruin if not brought back to him, yet not desirous to return. Christ is earnest in bringing sinners home.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “They that have left the fold in which they were nurtured in early life, and have gone over bleak mountains and through tangled brakes, find themselves in this exquisite picture. But the Lord is on their track. He cannot abide happily with the rest, while one sheep is liable to be torn by beasts of prey or caught away by eagles. He goes after it till He finds it.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Don’t you think, mother, that the Lord loves that child of yours, now far away, as much as you do? Cannot you trust Him to seek until He finds? Then He will ask you to rejoice with Him. Jesus not only receiveth sinners, but seeketh them.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Those who have always lived an outwardly correct life and who do not think themselves in need of repentance are the ninety and nine.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Rejoice.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “How careful then should we be that our repentance is unto salvation!” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Lost Coin): “Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it? And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors saying, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin that I had lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there is joy before the angels of God over one sinner who repents.'” (15:8-10)
A. INFERENCE: “In the parable of the lost piece of silver, that which is lost, is one piece, of small value compared with the rest. Yet the woman seeks diligently till she finds it. This represents the various means and methods God makes use of to bring lost souls home to himself, and the Savior’s joy on their return to him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Some have the King’s stamp on them, but have rolled away into the dark corner amid dust and shavings. Oh, that we were all more willing to go down on our knees to sweep the floor to find the lost! The nine links of a necklace are useless if the tenth is missing. Christ cannot be satisfied until the lost coin is found.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “This represents the various means and methods God makes use of to bring lost souls home to himself: he has lighted the lamp of the gospel, not to show himself the way to us, but to show us the way to him; his heart is on it, to bring lost souls to himself.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Those who rejoice desire that others should rejoice with them. The repentance and conversion of sinners on earth are matter of joy and rejoicing in heaven.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “It is possible that the greatest sinners may be brought to repentance.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “While there is life there is hope, and the worst are not to be despaired of. God will delight to show them mercy. God rejoices in all his works, but particularly in the works of his grace.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We are moved with a more conscious joy for the recovery of what we had lost than for the continuance of what we had always enjoyed, for health out of sickness than for health without sickness.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Prodigal Son): “And he said, ‘There was a man who had two sons. And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the share of property that is coming to me.’ And he divided his property between them. Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took a journey into a far country, and there he squandered his property in reckless living. And when he had spent everything, a severe famine arose in that country, and he began to be in need. So he went and hired himself out to one of the citizens of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed pigs. And he was longing to be fed with the pods that the pigs ate, and no one gave him anything.” (15:11-16)
A. INFERENCE: “But when he came to himself, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have more than enough bread, but I perish here with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son. Treat me as one of your hired servants.’ And he arose and came to his father. But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and felt compassion, and ran and embraced him and kissed him. And the son said to him, ‘Father I have sinned against heaven and before you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.” (15:17-21)
1. FINDINGS: “But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring quickly the best robe, and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. And bring the fattened calf and kill it, and let us eat and celebrate. For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.’ And they began to celebrate.” (15:22-24)
2. CRITERIA: “The parable of the prodigal son shows the nature of repentance, and the Lord’s readiness to welcome and bless all who return to him. It fully sets forth the riches of gospel grace; and it has been, and will be, while the world stands, of unspeakable use to poor sinners, to direct and to encourage them in repenting and returning to God.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Now his older son was in the field, and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants and asked what these things meant. And he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and sound.” (15:25-27)
4. CAUSE: “But he was angry and refused to go in.” (15:28)
5. EFFECT: “His father came out and entreated him, but he answered his father, ‘Look, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed your command, yet you never gave me a young goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. But when this son of yours came, who has devoured your property with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him! And he said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. It was fitting to celebrate and be glad, for this you brother was dead, and is alive; he was lost and is found.” (15:29-32)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The mercy and grace of our God in Christ, shine almost as bright in his tender and gentle bearing with peevish saints, as his receiving prodigal sinners upon their repentance. It is the unspeakable happiness of all the children of God, who keep close to their Father’s house, that they are, and shall be ever with him. Happy will it be for those who thankfully accept Christ’s invitation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 16:1, I. The Parable of the Dishonest Manager; II. The Law and the Kingdom of God; III. Divorce and Remarriage; IV. The Rich Man and Lazarus

I. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Dishonest Manager): “He also said to the disciples, ‘There was a rich man who had a manager, and charges were brought to him that this man was wasting his possessions. And he called him and said to him, ‘What is this that I hear about you? Turn in the account of your management, for you can no longer be manager.’ And the manager said to himself, ‘What shall I do, since my master is taking the management away from me? I am not strong enough to dig, and I am ashamed to beg. I have decided what to do, so that when I am removed from management, people may receive me into their houses'” (16:1-4)
A. INFERENCE: “So summoning his master’s debtors one by one, he said to the first, ‘How much do you owe my master? He said, ‘A hundred measures of oil.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.’ Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ He said, ‘A hundred measures of wheat.’ He said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’ The master commended the dishonest manager for his shrewdness. For the sons of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their own generation than the sons of light. And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by means of unrighteous wealth, so that when it fails they may receive you into the eternal dwellings.” (16:5-9)
1. FINDINGS: “One who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much, and one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. If then you have not been faithful in the unrighteous wealth, who will entrust to you the true riches? And if you have not been faithful in that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own?” (16:10-12)
2. CRITERIA: “No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money.” (16:13)
3. CONDITION: “The Lord referred to in this parable commended not the fraud, but the policy of the steward. In that respect alone is it so noticed. Worldly men, in the choice of their object, are foolish; but in their activity, and perseverance, they are often wiser than believers. The unjust steward is not set before us as an example in cheating his master, or to justify any dishonesty, but to point out the careful ways of worldly men.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It would be well if the children of light would learn wisdom from the men of the world, and would as earnestly pursue their better object. The true riches signify spiritual blessings; and if a man spends upon himself, or hoards up what God has trusted to him, as to outward things, what evidence can he have, that he is an heir of God through Christ?” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The riches of this world are deceitful and uncertain.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us be convinced that those are truly rich, and very rich, who are rich in faith, and rich toward God, rich in Christ, in the promises; let us then lay up our treasure in heaven, and expect our portion from thence.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Law and the Kingdom of God): “The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things, and they ridiculed him. And he said to them, ‘You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts. For what is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God.” (16:14-15)
A. INFERENCE: “The Law and the Prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and everyone forces his way into it. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one dot of the Law to become void.” (16:16-17)
1. FINDINGS: “When our Lord spoke thus, the covetous Pharisees treated his instructions with contempt. But he warned them, that what they contended for as the law, was a wresting of its meaning.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “There are many covetous sticklers for the forms of godliness, who are the bitterest enemies to its power, and try to set others against the truth.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Our Master did not commend his fraud, but pointed out that the children of this world are singularly alive to their future and prepare for its contingencies. If they make a wrong use of money to provide for the future, how much more should Christians make a right use of it, so that when they die they may be welcomed to the eternal home by those whom they have benefited!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Money is described as unrighteous Mammon, the name of the heathen god of wealth. It is so often associated with cheating that the adjective is most appropriate. Note also that money is “the least” and “not that which is our own,” but God’s, to be used by us as His servants and at His direction.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “When Christ upbraids the Pharisees for justifying themselves, he means not that they acquired righteousness by acting properly, but that they ambitiously courted a reputation for righteousness of which they were destitute (Luke 16:15).” (Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin, p.476)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Go now and make a proud boast of your righteousness among men, while God in heaven abhors it (Luke 16:15).” (Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin, p.494)

III. KEY TEXT (Divorce and Remarriage): “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.” (16:18)
A. INFERENCE: “Far from intending to weaken the force of the law, in these allusions to a new economy, our Lord, in this unexpected way, sends home its high requirements with a pungency which the Pharisees would not fail to feel (Mat. 19:3-9 pertains; with the one exception of adultry noted). (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D., Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
1. FINDINGS: “There were some things condoned by the law, for the preventing of greater harm, the permission of which the gospel has indeed taken away, but without any detriment or disparagement to the law, as in the case of divorce.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “His gospel is intended to strike at the bitter root of men’s corrupt appetites and passions, to kill them, and pluck them up; and therefore they must not be so far indulged as that permission did indulge them, for the more they are indulged the more impetuous and headstrong they grow.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: Indulgences in corruption.
4. CAUSE: The sinful nature of fallen man.
5. EFFECT: Turn or burn.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Turn away from sin.

IV. KEY TEXT (The Rich Man and Lazarus): “There was a rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. And at his gate was laid a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, who desired to be fed with what fell from the rich man’s table. Moreover, even the dogs came and licked his sores.” (16:19-21)
A. INFERENCE: “The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried, and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. And he called out, “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in anguish in this flame.'” (16:22-24)
1. FINDINGS: “But Abraham said, ‘Child, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and Lazarus in like manner bad things; but now he is comforted here, and you are anguish. ” (16:25)
2. CRITERIA: “And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been fixed, in order that those who would pass from here to you may not be able, and none may cross from there to us.” (16:26)
3. CONDITION: “And he said, ‘Then I beg you, father, to send him to my father’s house–for I have five brothers–so that he may warn them, lest they also come into this place of torment.'” (16:27-28)
4. CAUSE: “But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.'” (16:29)
5. EFFECT: “And he said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’ He said to him, ‘If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.'” (16:30-31)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Circumstances in every age show that no terrors, or arguments, can give true repentance without the special grace of God renewing the sinner’s heart.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Week #132; Wed, Jul 08: Luke 17–21

Week #132; Wed, Jul 08: Luke 17:1-21:38

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Luke 17:1, I. Temptations to Sin; II. Increase Our Faith; III. Unworthy Servants; IV. Jesus Cleanses Ten Lepers; V. The Coming of the Kingdom

I. KEY TEXT (Temptations to Sin): “And he said to his disciples, ‘Temptations to sin are sure to come, but woe to the one through whom they come!” (17:1)
A. INFERENCE: “It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck and he were cast into the sea than he should cause one of these little ones to sin.” (17:2)
1. FINDINGS: “Pay attention to yourselves! If your brother sins, rebuke him, and if he repents, forgive him, and if he sins against you seven time in the day, and turns to you seven times, saying, ‘I repent,’ you must forgive him.” (17:3-4)
2. CRITERIA: “seven times—not a lower measure of the forgiving spirit than the “seventy times seven” enjoined on Peter, which was occasioned by his asking if he was to stop at seven times. “No,” is the virtual answer, “though it come to seventy times that number, if only he ask forgiveness in sincerity.” (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown, Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Sincerity” (17:3-4)
4. CAUSE: “It is no abatement of their guilt by whom an offense comes, nor will it lessen their punishment that offenses will come. Faith in God’s pardoning mercy, will enable us to get over the greatest difficulties in the way of forgiving our brethren. As with God nothing is impossible, so all things are possible to him that can believe.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The world is full of stumbling-blocks. Men are perpetually placing them in each other’s way; and especially before little children, the simple and the weak. Let us take heed to ourselves and endeavor to make life’s pathway easier for others. Let us spend lives of helpfulness and sympathy, full of love and forgiveness, of light and joy.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Be sincere in asking for forgiveness.

II. KEY TEXT (Increase Our Faith): “The apostles said to the Lord, ‘Increase our faith! And the Lord said, ‘If you had faith like a grain of mustard seed, you could say to this mulberry tree, ‘Be uprooted and planted in the sea,’ and it would obey you.” (17:5-6)
A. INFERENCE: “. . . moved by the difficulty of avoiding and forgiving “offenses.” This is the only instance in which a spiritual operation upon their souls was solicited of Christ by the Twelve.” (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Do these precepts seem too difficult? Does a sevenfold forgiveness seem impossible? Then learn the lesson of the mustard seed, which opens its tiny door to the inflow of Nature’s energy and is therefore enabled to produce what, to its unaided strength, would be impossible. Open your soul to God! His love through you will forgive and save to the uttermost!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “They say that our faith, if it is good, cannot be made better; for there is no faith save that which leans unshakingly, firmly, and undividedly, on the mercy of God.” (Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion)
3. CONDITION: “The apostles themselves acknowledged the weakness and deficiency of their faith, and saw their need of Christ’s grace for the improvement of it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The increasing of our faith is what we should earnestly desire.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Faith in God’s pardoning mercy will enable us to overcome the greatest difficulties that lie in the way of our forgiving our brother.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Whatever we do in the service of Christ, we must be very humble.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Unworthy Servants): “Will any one of you who has a servant plowing or keeping sheep say to him when he has come in from the field, ‘Come at once and recline at table’?” (17:7)
A. INFERENCE: “Will he not rather say to him, ‘Prepare supper for me, and dress properly, and serve me while I eat and drink, and afterward you will eat and drink’? Does he thank the servant because he did what was commanded?” (17:8-9)
1. FINDINGS: “So you also, when you have done all that you were commanded, say, ‘We are unworthy servants; we have only done what was our duty.'” (17:10)
2. CRITERIA: “But when you have done all, you have nothing to be proud of, and neither God nor man is under any obligation to you. Love is the elementary duty of the follower of Christ.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Unprofitable . . . a word which, though usually denoting the opposite of profit, is here used simply in its negative sense. “We have not, as his servants, profited or benefited God at all.” (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Our whole strength and our whole time are to be used for him.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “As God’s servants, it is our responsibility to fill up our time with duty, we ought to make the end of one service the beginning of another.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Our principal care here must be to do the duty of our relationship, and leave it to our Master to give us the comfort for it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus Cleanses Ten Lepers): “On the way to Jerusalem he was passing along between Samaria and Galilee. And as he entered a village, he was met by ten lepers, who stood at a distance and lifted up their voices, saying, ‘Jesus, Master, have mercy on us'” (17:11-13)
A. INFERENCE: “When he saw them he said to them, ‘Go and show yourselves to the priests.’ And as they went they were cleansed.” (17:14)
1. FINDINGS: “Then one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, praising God with a loud voice; and he fell on his face at Jesus’ feet, giving him thanks. Now he was a Samaritan.” (17:15)
2. CRITERIA: “Then Jesus answered, ‘Were not ten cleansed? Where are the nine? Was no one found to return and give praise to God except the foreigner?’.” (17:17-18)
3. CONDITION: “And he said to him, ‘Rise and go your way; your faith has made you well.'” (17:19)
4. CAUSE: “they lifted up—their common misery drawing these poor outcasts together (2 Kings 7:3), nay, making them forget the fierce national antipathy of Jew and Samaritan. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “faith made thee whole—not as the others, merely in body, but in that higher spiritual sense with which His constant language has so familiarized us. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It was this faith that saved them, because faith like this lets in the whole tide of God’s saving health.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

V. KEY TEXT (The Coming of the Kingdom): “Being asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, he answered them, ‘The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed, nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is! or ‘There!’ for behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you.'” (17:20-21)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to the disciples, ‘The days are coming when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it.” (17:22)
1. FINDINGS: “And they will say to you, ‘Look, there! or ‘Look, here! Do not go out or follow them. For as the lightning flashes and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day.” (17:23-24)
2. CRITERIA: “But first he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. Just as it was in the days of Noah, so will it be in the days of the Son of Man.” (17:25-26)
3. CONDITION: “They were eating and drinking and marrying and being given in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all–so will it be on the day when the Son of Man is revealed.” (17:27)
4. CAUSE: “It cometh not with observation—with watching or lying in wait, as for something outwardly imposing and at once revealing itself. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “On that day, let the one who is on the housetop, with his goods in the house, not come down to take them away, and likewise let the one who is in the field not turn back. Remember Lot’s wife. Whoever seeks to preserve his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life will keep it. I tell you, in that night there will be two in one bed. One will be taken and the other left. There will be two women grinding together. One will be taken and the other left. And they said to him, ‘Where, Lord?’ He said to them, ‘Where the corpse is, there the vultures will gather.” (17:28-37)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “. . . guard against the mistake of supposing that His visible presence would accompany the manifestation and establishment of His kingdom. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary) “Lightening” and the “blink of an eye” gives little time for on the spot evaluation; we have to be ready now. It will be too late once He appears. Now is the judgment.

Luke 18:1, I. The Parable of the Persistent Widow; II. The Pharisee and the Tax Collector; III. Let the Children Come to Me; IV. The Rich Ruler; V. Jesus Foretells His Death a Third Time; VI. Jesus Heals a Blind Beggar

I. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Persistent Widow): “And he told them a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart. He said, ‘In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor respected man. And there was a widow in that city who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.'” (18:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “For a while he refused, but afterward he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor respect man, yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will give her justice, so that she will not beat me down by her continual coming.” (18:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “And the Lord said, ‘Hear what the unrighteous judge says. And will not God give justice to his elect, who cry to him day and night? Will he delay long over them?” (18:6-7)
2. CRITERIA: “‘I tell you, he will give justice to them speedily.” (18:8)
3. CONDITION: “‘Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?'” (18:8)
4. CAUSE: “All God’s people are praying people. Here earnest steadiness in prayer for spiritual mercies is taught. The widow’s earnestness prevailed even with the unjust judge: she might fear lest it should set him more against her; but our earnest prayer is pleasing to our God. Even to the end there will still be ground for the same complaint of weakness of faith.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “It is our duty to pray; it is our constant work.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Pray constantly.

II. KEY TEXT (The Pharisee and the Tax Collector): “He also told this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and treated others with contempt: ‘Two men went up into the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector.” (18:9-10)
A. INFERENCE: “The Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee, standing by himself, prayed thus: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I get.’ But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, ‘God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'” (18:9-13)
1. FINDINGS: “I tell you, this man went down to his house justified, rather than the other. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but the one who humbles himself will be exalted.” (18:14)
2. CRITERIA: “. . . standing afar off—as unworthy to draw near; but that was the way to get near (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “To be self-emptied, or, “poor in spirit,” is the fundamental and indispensable preparation for the reception of the “grace which bringeth salvation”: wherever this exists, the “mourning” for it which precedes “comfort” and the earnest “hungerings and thirstings after righteousness” which are rewarded by the “fulness” of it, will, as we see here, be surely found. Such, therefore, and such only, are the justified ones (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “We are taught here the spirit in which we should pray. Too many pray “with themselves.” The only time that we may thank God for not being as others is when we attribute the contrast to His grace, 1 Timothy 1:12-14.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Let it never be forgotten that those who will be justified and stand accepted before God are they who are nothing in their own estimate.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “To be self-emptied and poor in spirit is the fundamental and indispensable preparation for receiving the grace of God.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Let the Children Come to Me): “Now they were bringing even infants to him that he might touch them. And when the disciples saw it, they rebuked them.” (18:15)
A. INFERENCE: “But Jesus called them to him, saying, ‘Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of God.” (18:16-17)
1. FINDINGS: “It is surely not to be conceived that all our Lord meant was to inform us, that seeing grown people must become childlike in order to be capable of the Kingdom of God, therefore they should not hinder infants from coming to Him, and therefore He took up and blessed the infants themselves.” (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Bow yourself at the feet of Christ and He will lift you to His throne.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “We think that children must grow up to become like us before they are eligible to the Kingdom. Nay, we must grow down to become like them, in simplicity, in humility and in faith.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “None are too little, too young, to be brought to Christ, who knows how to show kindness to those not capable of doing service to him. It is the mind of Christ, that little children should be brought to him. The promise is to us, and to our seed; therefore He will bid them welcome to him with us.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Anyone who will not receive the kingdom of God like a little child, that is, receive the benefits of it with humility and thankfulness, gladly confessing himself indebted to free grace for them; unless a man is brought to this self-denying frame of mind he shall never enter into that kingdom.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Those full-grown people are most welcome to him who have in them most of the attitude of children” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Rich Ruler): “And a ruler asked him, ‘Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?'” (18:18)
A. INFERENCE: “And Jesus said to him, ‘Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. You know the commandments: ‘Do not commit adultery, Do not murder, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honor your father and mother.'” (18:19-20)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said, ‘All these I have kept from my youth.’ When Jesus heard this, he said to him, ‘One thing you still lack. Sell all that you have and distribute to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.'” (18:21-22)
2. CRITERIA: “But when he heard these things, he became very sad, for he was extremely rich. Jesus, seeing that he had become sad, said, ‘How difficult it is for those who have wealth to enter the kingdom of God! For it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.'” (18:23-25)
3. CONDITION: “Those who heard it said, ‘Then who can be saved?’ But he said, ‘What is impossible with men is possible with God.’ And Peter said, ‘See, we have left our homes and followed you.’ And he said to them, ‘Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or wife or brothers or parents or children, for the sake of the kingdom of God, who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the age to come eternal life.” (18:26-30)
4. CAUSE: “. . . lackest . . . one thing—Ah! but that a fundamental, fatal lack. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “As riches were his idol, our Lord, who knew if from the first, lays His great authoritative grasp at once upon it, saying, “Now give Me up that, and all is right. (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “But we, like the ruler, should rather be ashamed that there has been any regret or difficulty in doing it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

V. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells His Death a Third Time): “And taking the twelve, he said to them, ‘See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished. For he will be delivered over to the Gentiles and will be mocked and shamefully treated and spit upon. And after flogging him, they will kill him, and on the third day he will rise.'” (18:31-33)
A. INFERENCE: “But they understood none of these things. This saying was hidden from them, and they did not grasp what he said.” (18:34)
1. FINDINGS: “Our Lord knew what was awaiting Him. He laid down His life “of Himself.” But all the significance of His life and death was concealed from the Apostles and others. Their eyes were blinded, till the glory of the Resurrection morning had dawned and the day of Pentecost had fully come.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “The Spirit of Christ, in the Old Testament prophets, testified beforehand his sufferings, and the glory that should follow, 1 Peter 1:11. The disciples’ prejudices were so strong, that they would not understand these things literally. They were so intent upon the prophecies which spake of Christ’s glory, that they overlooked those which spake of his sufferings. People run into mistakes, because they read their Bibles by halves, and are only for the smooth things.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “We are as backward to learn the proper lessons from the sufferings, crucifixion, and resurrection of Christ, as the disciples were to what he told them as to those events; and for the same reason; self-love, and a desire of worldly objects, close our understandings.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The Evangelist seems unable to say strongly enough how entirely hidden from them at that time was the sense of these exceeding plain statements: no doubt to add weight to their subsequent testimony, which from this very circumstance was prodigious, and with all the simple-hearted irresistible.” (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Their eyes were blinded, till the glory of the Resurrection morning had dawned and the day of Pentecost had fully come.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “But here, as always, when Christ spoke of his sufferings and death, he foretold his resurrection as that which removed both the terror and reproach of his sufferings.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Heals a Blind Beggar): “As he drew near to Jericho, a blind man was sitting by the roadside begging. And hearing a crowd going by, he inquired what this meant. They told him, ‘Jesus of Nazareth is passing by.’ And he cried out, ‘Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!’ And those who were in front rebuked him, telling him to be silent. But he cried out all the more, ‘Son of David, have mercy on me!'” (18:35-39)
A. INFERENCE: “And Jesus stopped and commanded him to be brought to him. And when he came near, he asked him, ‘What do you want me to do for you?’ He said, ‘Lord, let me recover my sight.'” (18:40-41)
1. FINDINGS: “And Jesus said to him, ‘Recover your sight; your faith has made you well.’ ” (18:42)
2. CRITERIA: “Our Lord’s mind must have been filled with the anticipation of the momentous issues to be decided; but He was sufficiently at leisure from Himself to hear the cry of distress from this blind beggar. How absolutely He placed Himself at the disposal of those who needed His help!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “And immediately he recovered his sight and followed him, glorifying God. And all the people, when they saw it, gave praise to God.” (18:43)
4. CAUSE: “Human need and sorrow always commanded Him. Each comer was able to draw all the grace he required, according to the measure of the bucket of his faith when let down into that infinite well.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “There is no reason why each of us should not be made whole and follow Christ, glorifying Him. But we are blind!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The grace of Christ ought to be thankfully acknowledged, to the glory of God. It is for the glory of God if we follow Jesus, as those will do whose eyes are opened. We must praise God for his mercies to others, as well as for mercies to ourselves.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 19:1, I. Jesus and Zacchaeus; II. The Parable of the Ten Minas; III. The Triumphal Entry; IV. Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem; V. Jesus Cleanses the Temple

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus and Zacchaeus): “He entered Jericho and was passing through. And there was a man named Zacchaeus. He was a chief tax collector and was rich. And he was seeking to see who Jesus was, but on account of the crowd he could not, because he was small of stature.” (19:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “So he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was about to pass that way. And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up and said to him, ‘Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for I must stay at your house today.’ So he hurried and came down and received him joyfully. And when they saw it, they all grumbled, ‘He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.'” (19:4-7)
1. FINDINGS: “And Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, ‘Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor. And if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I restore it fourfold.’ And Jesus said to him, ‘Today salvation has come to this house, since he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.” (19:8-10)
2. CRITERIA: “. . . Jews typically despised tax collectors as traitors, because they worked for the Roman Empire. . . . Tax collectors often used their authority to take money for themselves. Zaccheus was a dissatisfied man. His dishonest acquisitions added to his wealth but subtracted from his peace of mind. He knew that the least he could do would be to repay those whom he had robbed. But his soul required more, and longed for salvation, such as only Jesus Christ could give. (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The Lord knew this, and therefore halted beneath the tree and invited Himself as a guest to the publican’s home. The one man in all Jericho who most needed the Savior was discovered by Him and saved. The grace of God is ever in search of those who have gone as far as their light will carry them.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “What a blessing it is that the Lord is willing to be our guest! See that He is welcomed to the guestroom of your heart. Stand to serve Him. He brings salvation for you and yours.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Those who sincerely desire a sight of Christ, like Zacchaeus, will break through opposition, and take pains to see him. Christ invited himself to Zacchaeus’ house. Wherever Christ comes he opens the heart, and inclines it to receive him.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He that has a mind to know Christ, shall be known of him. Those whom Christ calls, must humble themselves, and come down.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Ten Minas): “As they heard these things, he proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, and because they supposed that the kingdom of God was to appear immediately.” (19:11)
A. INFERENCE: “He said therefore, ‘A nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom and then return. Calling ten of his servants, he gave them ten minas, and said to them, ‘Engage in business until I come.’ But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us.’ When he returned, having received the kingdom, he ordered these servants to whom he had given the money to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by doing business.” (19:12-15)
1. FINDINGS: “The first came before him, saying, ‘Lord, your mina has made ten minas more.’ And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant! Because you have been faithful in a very little, you shall have authority over ten cities.’ And the second came saying, ‘Lord, your mina has made five minas.’ And he said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ Then another came, saying, ‘Lord, here is your mina, which I kept laid away in a handkerchief; for I was afraid of you, because you are a severe man. You take what you did not deposit, and reap what you did not sow.’ He said to him, ‘I will condemn you with your own words, you wicked servant! You knew that I was a severe man, taking what I did not deposit and reaping what I did not sow? Why then did you not put my money in the bank, and at my coming I might have collected it with interest? And he said to those who stood by, ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas.’ And they said to him, ‘Lord, he has ten minas! ‘I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slaughter them before me.” (19:16-27)
2. CRITERIA: “In many respects this parable differs from that of the ten talents. In that, the servants are entrusted with different amounts; in this, the same amount is allotted to each. Obviously, the former deals with our powers and opportunities for service, which greatly differ; whereas the latter deals with those ordinary gifts which are common to all, and especially with the gift of salvation. All have the opportunity of using and enjoying the same bestowment of life which is in Jesus Christ for those who believe.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Some make the greatest possible use of “our common salvation.” They increase its blessings by much prayer and faith and experience. They speak of it to others and spread the knowledge of the heights and depths of God’s love. The more they do this, the more it grows on them. Others pass through life without realizing or enjoying Christ’s gift of eternal life. They hope that they may be saved; but they have no deep experimental knowledge of His love. These are they who misuse their pound!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal, 1 Corinthians 12:7. And as every one has received the gift, so let him minister the same, 1 Peter 4:10.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The account required, resembles that in the parable of the talents; and the punishment of the avowed enemies of Christ, as well as of false professors, is shown.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “. . . more will be given . . . The new king indicates that faithful obedience leads to greater responsibility in managing the kingdom’s resources. Jesus made this same point in the parable of the lamp. (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible).

III. KEY TEXT (The Triumphal Entry): “And when he had said these things, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. When he drew near to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount that is called Olivet, he sent two of the disciples, saying, ‘Go into the village in front of you, where on entering you will find a colt tied, on which no one has ever yet sat. Untie it and bring it here. If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it? you shall say this: ‘The Lord has need of it.'” (19:28-31)
A. INFERENCE: “So those who were sent went away and found it just as he had told them. And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, ‘Why are you untying the colt?’ And they said, ‘The Lord has need of it.'” (19:32-34)
1. FINDINGS: “And they brought it to Jesus, and throwing their cloaks on the colt, they set Jesus on it. And as he rode along, they spread their cloaks on the road. As he was drawing near–already on the way down the Mount of Olives–the whole multitude of his disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen, saying, ‘Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!'” (19:35-38)
2. CRITERIA: “It is thus that Jesus pursues His way through the ages; the princes of this world know Him not, but His character is appreciated and His claims are recognized by babes, Matthew 11:25; 1 Corinthians 2:8. Are you in the Master’s procession?” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “And some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to him, ‘Teacher, rebuke your disciples.’ He answered, ‘I tell you, if these were silent, the very stones would cry out.'” (19:39-40)
4. CAUSE: “Jesus’ royalty is not of this world. It is based on character. It is ignored by the proud, but welcomed by the poor. It is fairest to those whose eyes are anointed to penetrate the veil and discern the eternal realities, and of their enthusiasm, praise to God is the irresistible expression.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The Lord’s need is the master-motive. We can hold nothing back from His request, whether child, or money, or life. Let these words ring in our hearts: The Lord hath need.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “And what will be the feelings of men when the Lord returns in glory to judge the world!” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem): “And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, saying, ‘Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you.” (19:41-43)
A. INFERENCE: “And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation.” (19:44)
1. FINDINGS: “Our Lord loved the city of His race; and when it finally rejected His appeals, He knew that nothing could avert its downfall. Hence His tears! Each nation, city and individual has one day which is the crisis of existence. We cross the equator without knowing it. There is one hour in each God-forsaken life when, as in the Temple before its fall, watchers hear the words, “Let us depart,” and there is the rustle of wings! Notice that God visits us in mercy before He comes to us in wrath.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “But let every one remember, that though Jesus wept over Jerusalem, he executed awful vengeance upon it. Though he delights not in the death of a sinner, yet he will surely bring to pass his awful threatenings on those who neglect his salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “May he then come and cleanse our hearts by his Spirit, from all that defiles. May sinners, on every side, become attentive to the words of truth and salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The Son of God did not weep vain and causeless tears, nor for a light matter, nor for himself. He knows the value of souls, the weight of guilt, and how low it will press and sink mankind.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Jesus is addressing the city itself; the reference to children indicates Jerusalem’s inhabitants, the Jews. (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Recognize the time of God’s coming.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (Jesus Cleanses the Temple): “And he entered the temple and began to drive out those who sold, saying to them, ‘It is written, ‘My house shall be a house of prayer, but you have made it a den of robbers.'” (19:45-46)
A. INFERENCE: “And he was teaching daily in the temple. The chief priests and the scribes and the principal men of the people were seeking to destroy him, but they did not find anything they could do, for all the people were hanging on his words.” (19:47-48)
1. FINDINGS: “It was a startling act when Christ cleansed the Temple for the second time, John 2:13, etc. If there had been daily papers in those days, they would have chronicled it in great headlines. Extraordinary that this meek and lowly man should break out so vehemently! But His zeal for God’s house sustained and bore Him along. Let us ask Him to cleanse the temple of our heart.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “These priests and scribes had vested interests to conserve, which blinded them to the beauty and glory of Christ. If we place a coin, however valueless, against the eye, it will blind us to the sun.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Several factors likely contributed to the religious leaders’ desire to kill Jesus: They viewed Him as a messianic pretender and a blasphemer, they lost control of the masses due to His popularity, and they feared that civil unrest during the Passover festival would lead to violent reprisals from Rome.” (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
4. CAUSE: “His zeal for God’s house sustained and bore Him along.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “With those who have long neglected the time of God’s coming, if at last their eyes are opened, and they take heed, all will be well yet. Those shall not be refused who come into the vineyard at the eleventh hour.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It is the amazing folly of multitudes that enjoy the means of grace, that they do not make the most the day of their opportunities.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

Luke 20:1, I. The Authority of Jesus Challenged; II. The Parable of the Wicked Tenants; III. Paying Taxes to Caesar; IV. Sadducees Ask About the Resurrection; V. Whose Son Is the Christ?; VI. Beware of the Scribes

I. KEY TEXT (The Authority of Jesus Challenged): “One day, as Jesus was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes with the elders came up and said to him, ‘Tell us by what authority you do these things, or who it is that gave you the authority.'” (20:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “He answered them, “I also will ask you a question. Now tell me, was the baptism of John from heaven or from man?’ And they discussed it with one another, saying, ‘If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him? But if we say, ‘From man,’ all the people will stone us to death, for they are convinced that John was a prophet.'” (20:3-6)
1. FINDINGS: “So they answered that they did not know where it came from. And Jesus said to them, ‘Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.'” (20:7-8)
2. CRITERIA: “When anyone has received a divine commission, he does not need to prove it. His credentials are written large upon his life and message. It was so with John the Baptist. There was no need for him to argue his claims. The crowds in the Jordan valley; the multitudes in the baptismal waters, were sufficient to attest him as God’s servant. ” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The masses of people that followed Him and hung on His words had no doubt that He was the heir of the vineyard.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “The leaders professed to doubt it, because, to use the language of the parable that follows, they were reluctant to surrender their claims to the ownership of the vineyard. ” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Men often pretend to examine the evidences of revelation, and the truth of the gospel, when only seeking excuses for their own unbelief and disobedience. Christ answered these priests and scribes with a plain question about the baptism of John, which the common people could answer. They all knew it was from heaven, nothing in it had an earthly tendency.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Believe in His miracles.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (The Parable of the Wicked Tenants): “And he began to tell the people this parable: ‘A man planted a vineyard and let it out to tenants and went into another country for a long while. When the time came, he sent a servant to the tenants, so that they would give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the tenants beat him and sent him away empty-handed. And he sent another servant. But they also beat and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed. And he sent yet a third. This one also they wounded and cast out.” (20:9-12)
A. INFERENCE: “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do? I will send my beloved son; perhaps they will respect him.’ But when the tenants saw him, they said to themselves, ‘This is the heir. Let us kill him, so that the inheritance may be ours.'” (20:13-15)
1. FINDINGS: “He will come and destroy those tenants and give the vineyard to others. When they heard this they said, ‘Surely not!’ But he looked directly at them and said, ‘What then is this that is written: ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’?” (20:16-17)
2. CRITERIA: “Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him.'” (20:18)
3. CONDITION: “The vineyard represents the privileges and blessings of the Hebrew race. The servants are evidently the prophets and others sent from God. Whatever our position in life, God expects a revenue from it. We are not owners, but tenants; not proprietors, but stewards. Are you sure that you are giving God the dues which He may justly claim?” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It is said that in the building of Solomon’s Temple, a valuable carved stone was cast aside and neglected, till a part of the structure absolutely called for it. You may build society as you like, but there will come a time when Christ will be needed to give the finishing touch.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Christ spake this parable against those who resolved not to own his authority, though the evidence of it was so full. How many resemble the Jews who murdered the prophets and crucified Christ, in their enmity to God, and aversion to his service, desiring to live according to their lusts, without control! Let all who are favored with God’s word, look to it that they make proper use of their advantages. Awful will be the doom, both of those who reject the Son, and of those who profess to reverence Him, yet render not the fruits in due season.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “It is the folly of sinners, that they persevere in sinful ways, though they dread the destruction at the end of those ways.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Paying Taxes to Caesar): “The scribes and the chief priests sought to lay hands on him at that very hour, for they perceived that he had told this parable against them, but they feared the people. So they watched him and sent spies, who pretended to be sincere, that they might catch him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction of the governor.” (20:19-20)
A. INFERENCE: “So they asked him, ‘Teacher, we know that you speak and teach rightly, and show no partiality, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar, or not?” (20:21-22)
1. FINDINGS: “But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, ‘Show me a denarius. Whose likeness and inscription does it have? They said, ‘Caesar’s’ He said to them, ‘Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s. And they were not able in the presence of the people to catch him in what he said, but marveling at his answer they became silent.” (20:23-26)
2. CRITERIA: “Fearing to touch Him themselves, and finding no foothold against Him according to the Mosaic law, His enemies sought to bring Christ into collision with the civil power. To do this, no hypocrisy was too mean.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “So poor was our Lord that He must needs ask them to furnish the penny or drachma. Caesar has a certain claim on us. He has earned certain rights of homage and tribute by preserving the good order of society and the safety of our persons; but there his authority ends. When he intrudes into the realm of conscience, he is a usurper. In that kingdom he has no claims whatever.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Ah, soul! Thou belongest to the great King; thou art stamped with His image and superscription! Give Him thyself!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Those who are most crafty in their designs against Christ and his gospel, cannot hide them.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “All of those who reject Jesus’ place in God’s plan are acting in opposition to God’s purposes and will be judged accordingly.” (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)

IV. KEY TEXT (Sadducees Ask About the Resurrection): “Then came to him some Sadducees, those who deny that there is a resurrection, and they asked him a question, saying, ‘Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies, having a wife but no children, the man must take the widow and raise up offspring for his brother.” (20:27-28)
A. INFERENCE: “Now there were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died without children. And the second and the third took her, and likewise all seven left no children and died. Afterward the woman also died. In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be? For the seven had her as wife.” (20:29-33)
1. FINDINGS: “And Jesus said to them, ‘The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage, for they cannot die anymore, because they are equal to angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection.” (20:34-36)
2. CRITERIA: “But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, in the passage about the bush, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living, for all live to him.’ Then some of the scribes answered, ‘Teacher, you have spoken well.’ For they no longer dared to ask him any question.” (20:37-40)
3. CONDITION: “Here our Lord answers the materialism of His time. He speaks with the note of absolute certainty concerning the unseen, Hebrews 11:27. Its inhabitants do not die or marry, nor are they subject to the conditions of our earthly life. These are the children of the resurrection.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “How wonderful to find a proof of immortality in that passage about the bush, Exodus 3:6! The fact that Jehovah said, “I am the God of Abraham,” proved that the patriarch was in existence somewhere at that moment. Those whom we describe as dead are living people who have died. Death is but a passage, a step. There is no break in the chain of existence. Yonder and here all live unto God, Romans 14:8.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “There are more worlds than one; a present visible world, and a future unseen world; and let every one compare this world and that world, and give the preference in his thoughts and cares to that which deserves them. Believers shall obtain the resurrection from the dead, that is the blessed resurrection.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Those that are entered into the joy of their Lord, are entirely taken up therewith; when there is perfection of holiness there will be no occasion for preservatives from sin. And when God called himself the God of these patriarchs, he meant that he was a God all-sufficient to them.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

V. KEY TEXT (Whose Son Is the Christ?): “But he said to them, ‘How can they say that the Christ is David’s son? For David himself says in the Book of Psalms, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.'” (20:41-42)
A. INFERENCE: “David thus calls him Lord, so how is he his son?” (20:44)
1. FINDINGS: “Christ, as God, was David’s Lord, but Christ, as man, was David’s Son.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: Christ as God and as man enables a correct answer depending which view is used.
3. CONDITION: It’s best to be willing to adopt both views to discern the omnipresence of God.
4. CAUSE: Christ moves from one posture to another to satisfy God’s will.
5. EFFECT: Christ is omnipotent.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Recognize Christ is the “Alpha” and the “Omega. His span is never ending to never ending.”

VI. KEY TEXT (Beware of the Scribes): “And in the hearing of all the people he said to his disciples, ‘Beware of the scribes, who like to walk around in long robes, and love greetings in the marketplaces and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at feasts, who devour widows’ houses and for a pretense make long prayers. They will receive the greater condemnation.” (20:45-47)
A. INFERENCE: “‘Take heed of being brought into trouble by them,’ in the same sense that he had said ‘Beware of men. Be on your guard against men; they will hand you over to the local councils; beware of the teachers of the law.'” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
1. FINDINGS: “They are covetous and oppressive, and make their religion a cloak and cover for crime.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
2. CRITERIA: “Christ reads them their doom in a few words: ‘Such men will be punished most severely,’ a double damnation.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Hypocritical piety is double iniquity (sin).” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: Sin.
5. EFFECT: Justice and punishment.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Humility, confess, repent.

Luke 21:1, I. The Widow’s Offering; II. Jesus Foretells Destruction of the Temple; III. Jesus Foretells Wars and Persecution; IV. Jesus Foretells Destruction of Jerusalem; V. The Coming of the Son of Man; VI. The Lesson of the Fig Tree; VII. Watch Yourselves

I. KEY TEXT (The Widow’s Offering): “Jesus looked up and saw the rich putting their gifts into the offering box, and he saw a poor widow put in two small copper coins.” (21:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said, ‘Truly, I tell you, this poor widow has put in more than all of them. For they all contributed out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in all she had to live on.'” (21:3-4)
1. FINDINGS: “Our gifts to God should cost us something, else they are not reckoned in the accounts of eternity. The real value of a gift is to be estimated by what is left behind.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Holy deeds are imperishable! Jesus is still sitting by the treasury, watching and estimating our gifts.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “From the offering of this poor widow, learn that what we rightly give for the relief of the poor, and the support of God’s worship, is given unto God; and our Savior sees with pleasure whatever we have in our hearts to give for the relief of his members, or for his service.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Blessed Lord! the poorest of thy servants have two mites, they have a soul and a body; persuade and enable us to offer both unto thee; how happy shall we be in thine accepting of them!” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: All.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Soul and body, all.

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells Destruction of the Temple): “And while some were speaking of the temple, how it was adorned with noble stones and offerings, he said, ‘As for these things that you see, the days will come when there will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down.'” (21:5-6)
A. INFERENCE: “And they asked him, ‘Teacher, when will these things be, and what will be the sign when these things are about to take place?'” (21:7)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said, ‘See that you are not led astray. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he!’ and, ‘The time is at hand!’ Do not go after them. And when you hear of wars and tumults, do not be terrified, for these things must first take place, but the end will not be at once.” (21:8-9)
2. CRITERIA: “When we ask speculative questions, the Master bids us take heed to ourselves. His predictions in this passage were literally fulfilled in the events which culminated in the siege and fall of Jerusalem, forty years afterward.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The Church is called to follow her Lord. No easier path than His may she choose. Where there is no outward suffering there may be the inner cross and the death to all that the soul had once prized. Jesus has always stood beside His own wherever they have been called to witness for the truth; and the testimony given by His witnesses has reached the great ones of the earth and reverberated through courts and palaces.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “In suffering our souls become searched as by fire. We learn to know ourselves and to come into possession of an experience and a self-knowledge with which only suffering could have endowed us.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “It is natural for us to covet to know future things, when we ought rather to ask what is our duty in the prospect of these things, and how we may prepare for them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Expect to hear of false Christs and false prophets appearing.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells Wars and Persecution): “Then he said to them, ‘Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences. And there will be terrors and great signs from heaven.” (21:10-11)
A. INFERENCE: “But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name’s sake.” (21:12)
1. FINDINGS: “This will be your opportunity to bear witness. Settle it therefore in your minds not to meditate beforehand how to answer, for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and some of you they will put to death. You will be hated by all for my name’s sake. But not a hair of you head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.” (21:13-19)
2. CRITERIA: “Christ tells them what hard things they should suffer for his name’s sake, and encourages them to bear up under their trials, and to go on in their work, notwithstanding the opposition they would meet with. God will stand by you, and own you, and assist you. This was remarkably fulfilled after the pouring out of the Spirit, by whom Christ gave his disciples wisdom and utterance.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Though we may be losers for Christ, we shall not, we cannot be losers by him, in the end. It is our duty and interest at all times, especially in perilous, trying times, to secure the safety of our own souls. It is by Christian patience we keep possession of our own souls, and keep out all those impressions which would put us out of temper.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Having given an idea of the times for about thirty-eight years next to come, Christ shows what all those things would end in, namely, the destruction of Jerusalem, and the utter dispersion of the Jewish nation; which would be a type and figure of Christ’s second coming.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “When he comes to judge the world, he will redeem all that are his from their troubles. So fully did the Divine judgments come upon the Jews, that their city is set as an example before us, to show that sins will not pass unpunished; and that the terrors of the Lord, and his threatenings against impenitent sinners, will all come to pass, even as his word was true, and his wrath great upon Jerusalem.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Do not be frightened.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells Destruction of Jerusalem): “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written.” (21:20-22)
A. INFERENCE: “Alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! For there will be great distress upon the earth and wrath against this people.” (21:23)
1. FINDINGS: “They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.” (21:24)
2. CRITERIA: “This paragraph clearly has its first reference to the fall of Jerusalem, which took place A.D. 70. The directions given by our Lord were of the greatest service to the Christian church, the members of which in large numbers, fled to Pella, across the Jordan, and so escaped the horrors of the siege. But beyond this each great event, such as the dissolution of the Hebrew state, the overthrow of the Roman Empire, the rise of the Reformation, the French Revolution, and so forth, is another stage in the advent of our Lord. He is always “coming in a cloud” so far as the eyes of men are concerned; but with the growing glory of clearer revelation and increased spiritual power. And all these stages are leading up to His final unveiling at His second advent.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “That generation did not pass away before these portents were fulfilled; but each great period or chapter of history closes with similar signs. It is as though nature were as sympathetic to the experiences of the race, as the body is to the motions of the soul. Again behold the travail-pangs of creation, through which the new heavens and the new earth are being born. See Romans 8:22, etc.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “. . . until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled . . . Jesus could be referring to the end of Roman oppression or to the end of the present age, before God’s reign is experienced in fullness.” (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
5. EFFECT: “He foretells the terrible havoc that would be made of the Jewish nation.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Be apprehensive of what is coming on the world. As that day was all terror and destruction to the unbelieving Jews, so the great day will be to all unbelievers.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (The Coming of the Son of Man): “And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken.” (21:25-26)
A. INFERENCE: “And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory (Matthew 24:31).” (21:27)
1. FINDINGS: “Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.” (21:28)
2. CRITERIA: Jesus is talking to His disciples about the Jews after the rapture. The saints will already be raptured up with Jesus by the time the events He is teaching will occur.
3. CONDITION: “The Jews and unbelievers that are left behind at the rapture that become believers will be gathered from the four winds by his angels when He returns at the Mount of Olives for Armageddon. The 144,000 pertain.” (Matthew 24:31)
4. CAUSE: “The Jews are His people and they get an opportunity to believe due to the evangelism of the 144,000.” (Daniel 7:13; Matthew 8:20)
5. EFFECT: “Jesus’ followers can joyfully rise to welcome their deliverer. (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Believe!

VI. KEY TEXT (The Lesson of the Fig Tree): “And he told them a parable: ‘Look at the fig tree, and all the trees. As soon as they come out in leaf, you see for yourselves and know that the summer is already near. So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near.” (21:29-31)
A. INFERENCE: “Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all has taken place.” (21:32)
1. FINDINGS: “Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.” (21:33)
2. CRITERIA: “In a limited significance, our Lord’s words were fulfilled within forty years of their utterance; but we are still to see how much more is contained in them than has yet been realized. In the meanwhile let us beware of His warning.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ tells his disciples to observe the signs of the times, which they might judge by. He charges them to look upon the ruin of the Jewish nation as near. Yet this race and family of Abraham shall not be rooted out; it shall survive as a nation, and be found as prophesied, when the Son of man shall be revealed.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Our danger is, lest the day of death and of judgment should come upon us when we are not prepared. Lest, when we are called to meet our Lord, that be the furthest from our thoughts, which ought to be nearest our hearts. For so it will come upon the most of men, who dwell upon the earth, and mind earthly things only, and have no converse with heaven.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Here see what should be our aim, that we may be accounted worthy to escape all those things; that when the judgments of God are abroad, we may not be in the common calamity, or it may not be that to us which it is to others. Do you ask how you may be found worthy to stand before Christ at that day? Those who never yet sought Christ, let them now go unto him; those who never yet were humbled for their sins, let them now begin; those who have already begun, let them go forward and be kept humbled.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Watch!

VII. KEY TEXT (Watch Yourselves): “But watch yourselves lest your hearts be weighed down with dissipation and drunkenness and cares of this life, and that day come upon you suddenly like a trap. For it will come upon all who dwell on the face of the whole earth.” (21:34-35)
A. INFERENCE: “But stay awake at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are going to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man.'” (21:36)
1. FINDINGS: “Watch therefore, and pray always. Watch against sin; watch in every duty, and make the most of every opportunity to do good. Pray always: those shall be accounted worthy to live a life of praise in the other world, who live a life of prayer in this world. May we begin, employ, and conclude each day attending to Christ’s word, obeying his precepts, and following his example, that whenever he comes we may be found watching.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “And every day he was teaching in the temple, but at night he went out and lodged on the mount called Olivet. And early in the morning all the people came to him in the temple to hear him.” (21:37-38)
3. CONDITION: “Jesus tells His followers to remain alert for the events described in Luke 21:8–28.” (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
4. CAUSE: “. . . it will come upon all . . . Indicates the universality of judgment. (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
5. EFFECT: “. . . to stand before the Son of Man . . . Refers to being judged by Him.” (Logos Bible Software/Faithlife Study Bible)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Watch harder.

Week #133; Wed, Jul 15: Luke 22-John 1

Week #133; Wed, Jul 15: Luke 22:1-John 1:51

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Luke 22:1, I. Plot to Kill Jesus; II. Judas to Betray Jesus; III. The Passover with the Disciples; IV. Institution of the Lord’s Supper; V. Who Is the Greatest?; VI. Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial; VII. Scripture Must Be Fulfilled in Jesus; VIII. Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives; IX. Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus; X. Peter Denies Jesus; XI. Jesus Is Mocked; XII. Jesus Before the Council

I. KEY TEXT (Plot to Kill Jesus): “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover.” (22:1)
A. INFERENCE: “And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to put him to death, for they feared the people.” (22:2)
1. FINDINGS: “When Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said to his disciples, ‘You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified.’ Then the chief priests and the elders of the people gathered in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and plotted together in order to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. But they said, ‘Not during the feast, lest there be an uproar among the people.'” (Matt. 26:1-5)
2. CRITERIA: “The world seemed in arms against the greatest Lover of souls that had ever trod earth’s soil.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “His sworn enemies contriving it, the chief priests, and the teachers of the law were looking for some way to get rid of Jesus. Could they have had their wish, it had been soon done, but they were afraid of the people.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The high priest and the elders plotted to arrest Jesus and kill him before the feast.” (Matt. 26:1-5)
5. EFFECT: “They relied on help by Judas, his betrayer. Satan entered Judas.” (Matt. 26:1-5)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wear the full armor of God.” (Eph. 6:11)

II. KEY TEXT (Judas to Betray Jesus): “Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. He went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers how he might betray him to them. And they were glad, and agreed to give him money. So he consented and sought an opportunity to betray him to them in the absence of a crowd.” (22:3-6)
A. INFERENCE: “Christ knew all men, and had wise and holy ends in taking Judas to be a disciple. How he who knew Christ so well, came to betray him, we are here told; Satan entered into Judas. It is hard to say whether more mischief is done to Christ’s kingdom, by the power of its open enemies, or by the treachery of its pretended friends; but without the latter, its enemies could not do so much evil as they do.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Satan entered the heart of Judas, for it was his hour, and he gathered all his strength for one last prodigious effort to overthrow the Son of man and thwart His sublime purpose of redemption.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Judas, one of the inner circle, did not hesitate to choose thirty pieces of silver rather than love, purity, compassion, as they were incarnate in the Son of man. The religious leaders of the age also eagerly caught at their chance.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “It was the devil’s work. ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “Whoever betrays Christ, or his truths or ways, it is Satan who incites them to it.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Judas knew how desirous the chief priests were to get Christ into their hands. He therefore went himself, and made the first move.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Make no contract with the devil.

III. KEY TEXT (The Passover with the Disciples): “Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.’ They said to him, ‘Where will you have us prepare it?’ He said to them, ‘Behold, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters and tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples? And he will show you a large upper room furnished; prepare it there.'” (22:7-12)
A. INFERENCE: “In the meanwhile the Lord girded Himself for the conflict by gathering to His heart the remainder of the apostolic band, though none of them really understood. The arrangement of the man with the waterpot was evidently to elude arrest during the supper, as Judas could not inform his accomplices beforehand of the selected supper room. Remember that Jesus asks each of us for the guest chamber of our heart! Ask Him, not to be as a wayfaring man who tarries for the night, but to abide always.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “And they went and found it just as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.” (22:13)
2. CRITERIA: “The awful stages of it were these: (1) Covetousness being his master—passion, the Lord let it reveal itself and gather strength by entrusting him with “the bag” (Jn 12:6), as treasurer to Himself and the Twelve. (2) In the discharge of that most sacred trust he became “a thief,” appropriating its contents from time to time to his own use. Satan, seeing this door into his heart standing wide open, determines to enter by it, but cautiously (2 Co 2:11); first merely “putting it into his heart to betray Him” (Jn 13:2), suggesting the thought to him that by this means he might enrich himself. (3) This thought was probably converted into a settled purpose by what took place in Simon’s house at Bethany. (Mt 26:6, and Jn 12:4–8.) (4) Starting back, perhaps, or mercifully held back, for some time, the determination to carry it into immediate effect was not consummated till, sitting at the paschal supper, “Satan entered into him” (Jn 13:27), and conscience, effectually stifled, only rose again to be his tormentor. What lessons in all this for every one (Eph 4:27; Jam 4:7; 1 Pe 5:8, 9)!” (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Christ kept the ordinances of the law, particularly that of the Passover, to teach us to observe his gospel institutions, and most of all that of the Lord’s supper. Those who go upon Christ’s word, need not fear disappointment. According to the orders given them, the disciples got all ready for the Passover. Jesus bids this Passover welcome. He desired it, though he knew his sufferings would follow, because it was in order to his Father’s glory and man’s redemption.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Money.
5. EFFECT: Root of all evil.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Choose eternal over temporal.

IV. KEY TEXT (Institution of the Lord’s Supper): “And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him. And he said to them, ‘I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.'” (22:14-16)
A. INFERENCE: “And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he said, ‘Take this, and divide it among yourselves. For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.’ And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, ‘This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.’ And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, ‘This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.'” (22:17-20)
1. FINDINGS: “But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. For the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed! And they began to question one another, which of them it could be who was going to do this.” (22:21-23)
2. CRITERIA: “The Lord’s supper is a sign or memorial of Christ already come, who by dying delivered us; his death is in special manner set before us in that ordinance, by which we are reminded of it. The breaking of Christ’s body as a sacrifice for us, is therein brought to our remembrance by the breaking of bread. Nothing can be more nourishing and satisfying to the soul, than the doctrine of Christ’s making atonement for sin, and the assurance of an interest in that atonement. Therefore we do this in remembrance of what He did for us, when he died for us; and for a memorial of what we do, in joining ourselves to him in an everlasting covenant. The shedding of Christ’s blood, by which the atonement was made, is represented by the wine in the cup.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “These two allusions to the kingdom of God, Luke 22:16; Luke 22:18, point onward to the marriage supper when the full purpose of redemption will be consummated. As we partake of bread for our natural strength, so spiritual strength to suffer, to resist temptation and to serve is possible only in proportion as we feed on Christ by meditation and appropriation. And let us never forget that the wine is the emblem of His blood, by which the new covenant was sealed. See Heb 9:18. When therefore at the sacred feast we place the wine to our lips, we may quote the provisions of that covenant, and hold God pledged to fulfill them. See Heb 8:8, etc.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: To prepare for consummation of redemption.
5. EFFECT: Increase of spiritual strength.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Nourish and satisfy the soul in Holy Communion often.

V. KEY TEXT (Who Is the Greatest?): “A dispute also arose among them, as to which of them was to be regarded as the greatest.” (22:24)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those in authority over them are called benefactors. But not so with you.” (22:25
1. FINDINGS: “Rather, let the greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as one who serves.” (22:26)
2. CRITERIA: “For who is the greater, one who reclines at table or one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines at table? But I am among you as the one who serves.” (22:27)
3. CONDITION: “You are those who have stayed with me in my trials, and I assign to you, as my Father assigned to me, a kingdom, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” (22:28-30)
4. CAUSE: “Inconsistency: There they were enquiring which would be the traitor, and here which should be the prince. What a self-contradiction is the deceitful heart of man!” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “That to do good is much more honorable than to look great. That to do good is the surest way to be great.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Do good.

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial): “‘Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned again, strengthen you brothers.'” (22:31-32)
A. INFERENCE: “Peter said to him, ‘Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death.'” (22:33)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus said, ‘I tell you Peter, the rooster will not crow this day, until you deny three times that you know me.'” (22:34)
2. CRITERIA: “If believers were left to themselves, they would fall; but they are kept by the power of God, and the prayer of Christ. Our Lord gave notice of a very great change of circumstances now approaching.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “How often does our Lord anticipate our trial hours by His prayers, Luke 22:32! We owe it to them, either that we do not fall, or that, having fallen, we turn back. This is the best use we can make even of our failures; they teach us humility, pity, and how to help others. How little do we know ourselves!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “They strived for world honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They ought not to strive for worldly honor.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Be humble.

VII. KEY TEXT (Scripture Must Be Fulfilled in Jesus): “And he said to the, ‘When I sent you out with no moneybag or knapsack or sandals, did you lack anything?’ They said, ‘Nothing.'” (22:35)
A. INFERENCE: “He said to them, ‘But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his cloak and buy one.” (22:36)
1. FINDINGS: “‘For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors.’ For what is written about me has its fulfillment.'” (22:37)
2. CRITERIA: “And they said, ‘Look, Lord, here are two swords.’ And he said to them, ‘It is enough.'” (22:38)
3. CONDITION: “The disciples must not expect that their friends would be kind to them as they had been. Therefore, he that has a purse, let him take it, for he may need it. They must now expect that their enemies would be more fierce than they had been, and they would need weapons. At the time the apostles understood Christ to mean real weapons, but he spake only of the weapons of the spiritual warfare. The sword of the Spirit is the sword with which the disciples of Christ must furnish themselves.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “You are going forth not as before on a temporary mission, provided for without purse or scrip, but into scenes of continued and severe trial, your methods must be different; for purse and scrip will now be needed for support, and the usual means of defense.” (Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown Commentary).
5. EFFECT: “In these instructions to His Apostles, as to wallet, purse and sword, we must understand that He meant them to realize that the storm was about to burst upon them with furious intensity.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Hold on to the Anchor; it will hold.

VIII. KEY TEXT (Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives): “And he came out and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him, And when he came to the place, he said to them, ‘Pray that you may not enter into temptation.’ And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, ‘Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.'” (22:39-42)
A. INFERENCE: “And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him.” (22:43)
1. FINDINGS: “And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when he rose from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping for sorrow, and he said to them, ‘Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation.'” (22:44-46)
2. CRITERIA: “Some think that our Lord prayed most of all that His body should not give way under His awful anguish. He feared lest He should die before He could reach the Cross! See Heb. 5:7. ‘Oh, my Lord, thy chosen disciples failed thee in that hour; but so have we! What can we say! Help us to share thy vigil and thy prayer!'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “A visitation by a heavenly angel to provide strength.” (22:43)
4. CAUSE: “To provide him strength.” (22:43)
5. EFFECT: “He rose from prayer.” (22:45)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Pray continuously.

IX. KEY TEXT (Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus): “While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him, but Jesus said to him, ‘Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?'” (22:47-48)
A. INFERENCE: “And when those who were around him saw what would follow, they said, ‘Lord, shall we strike with the sword?’ And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. But Jesus said, ‘No more of this!’ And he touched his ear and healed him. (22:49-51)
1. FINDINGS: “Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, ‘Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.'” (22:49-53)
2. CRITERIA: “Nothing can be a greater affront or grief to the Lord Jesus, than to be betrayed by those who profess to be his followers, and say that they love him. Many instances there are, of Christ’s being betrayed by those who, under the form of godliness, fight against the power of it. Jesus here gave an illustrious example of his own rule of doing good to those that hate us, as afterwards he did of praying for those that despitefully use us. Corrupt nature warps our conduct to extremes; we should seek for the Lord’s direction before we act in difficult circumstances. Christ was willing to wait for his triumphs till his warfare was accomplished, and we must be so too. But the hour and the power of darkness were short, and such the triumphs of the wicked always will be.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “It may have been about midnight when the lights and movement of feet indicated the approach of Judas and his band. The kiss of Judas was probably intended to hide his treachery from his fellow-disciples; but it did not deceive his Master, who even in that sad hour sought to touch his heart. When Malchus’ ear was almost severed from the body, it was needful that our Lord should interpose, because, if Peter had been arrested, the gaze of mankind would have been diverted from the spectacle of Christ’s atonement, and a struggle might have ensued at the gate of the garden which would have justified the worst accusations of the high priest.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Judas and Satan.
5. EFFECT: Betrayed by one of his own.
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let darkness give way to light.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

X. KEY TEXT (Peter Denies Jesus): “Then they seized him and led him away, bringing him to the high priest’s house, and Peter was following at a distance. And when they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them.” (22:54-55)
A. INFERENCE: “Then a servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the light and looking closely at him, said, ‘This man also was with him.’ But he denied it, saying, ‘Woman, I do not know him.’ And a little later someone else saw him and said, ‘You also are one of them.’ But Peter said, ‘Man, I am not.’ And after an interval of about an hour still another insisted, saying, ‘Certainly this man also was with him, for he too is a Galilean.’ But Peter said, ‘Man, I do not know what you are talking about.’ And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed.” (22:54-60)
1. FINDINGS: “And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the saying of the Lord, how he had said to him, ‘Before the rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.’ And he went out and wept bitterly.” (22:61-62)
2. CRITERIA: “Peter loved Christ truly, but miscalculated his strength. Be very careful not to adventure yourself into the midst of temptation. If God leads you thither, that is another matter. We do well to remember Psa. 1:1-3. Let us beware of warming ourselves at the world’s fires. It was the firelight falling on his face that revealed Peter, and his brogue that betrayed him.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “But Peter sought to save himself from the results of his folly and sin; only to land deeper and deeper in the morass.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Overconfidence and miscalculation.
5. EFFECT: “Peter’s fall was his denying that he knew Christ, and was his disciple; disowning him because of distress and danger. He that has once told a lie, is strongly tempted to persist: the beginning of that sin, like strife, is as the letting forth of water. The Lord turned and looked upon Peter.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Be restored like Peter. “It was not the mere look from Christ, but the Divine grace with it, that restored Peter.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

XI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Is Mocked): “Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking him as they beat him. They also blindfolded him and kept asking him, ‘Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?’ And they said many other things against him, blaspheming him.” (22:63-65)
A. INFERENCE: “This scene of mockery is very terrible. How difficult the twelve legions of angels must have found it to restrain themselves. See Mat. 26:53. Here we have an exhibition of the hidden evil of the human heart, which is drawn forth in contact with infinite purity, as the stench of stagnant water is elicited by the summer sun.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “Our Lord answered not a word to all the false accusations that were leveled against Him. He left the false witnesses to refute each other. But as soon as His divine claims were challenged, He could not keep silence. It is very noticeable that, in this Gospel, which lays such stress on Christ’s pure humanity, Luke makes it so clear that the unwavering affirmation of His equality with God was the cause of His death, Joh. 5:18. Is there not a sense in which the eye of faith always beholds Him seated at the right hand of God’s power?” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “Those that condemned Jesus for a blasphemer, were the vilest blasphemers. He referred them to his second coming, for the full proof of his being the Christ, to their confusion, since they would not admit the proof of it to their conviction. He owns himself to be the Son of God, though he knew he should suffer for it. Upon this they ground his condemnation. Their eyes being blinded, they rush on. Let us meditate on this amazing transaction, and consider Him who endured such contradiction of sinners against himself. Luke 22:63.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “How our Lord Jesus was abused by the servants of the high priest. They made fun of him: this sorrowful night to him shall be a merry night to them.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “They asked him, ‘Are you the Christ?’ They asked it with a resolution not to believe him, but a plot to ensnare him.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He says, ‘If I tell you, you will not believe me. Why should the cause be stated before you who have already prejudged it?” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He referred them (and us) to his second coming . . . ” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

XII. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before the Council): “When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people gathered together, both chief priests and scribes. And they led him away to their council, and they said, ‘If you are the Christ, tell us.'” (22:66-67)
A. INFERENCE: “But he said to them, ‘If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask you, you will not answer.” (22:68)
1. FINDINGS: “But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God. So they all said, ‘Are you the Son of God, then?’ And he said to them, ‘You say that I am.’ Then they said, ‘What further testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips.” (22:69-71)
2. CRITERIA: The unexpected.
3. CONDITION: “He confesses himself to be the Son of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “On this they based his condemnation” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They cannot think it possible that he should be the Messiah, if he does not appear, as they expect, in worldly pomp and grandeur.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Yet, even today, expect the unexpected.

Luke 23:1, I. Jesus Before Pilot; II. Jesus Before Herod; III. Pilot Delivers Jesus to be Crucified; IV. The Crucifixion; V. The Death of Jesus; VI. Jesus is Buried

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before Pilot): “Then the whole company of them arose and brought him before Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, ‘We found this man misleading our nation and forbidding us to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king.'” (23:1-2)
A. INFERENCE: “And Pilate asked him, ‘Are you the King of the Jews?'” (23:3)
1. FINDINGS: “And he answered him, ‘You have said so.’ Then Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, ‘I find no guilt in this man.’ But they were urgent, saying, ‘He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee even to this place.'” (23:4-5)
2. CRITERIA: “The Jewish Sanhedrin, hastily summoned at the hour of dawn, having elicited from Jesus the profession of His messiahship and deity, and having concluded on the death sentence, set themselves to induce Pilate, the Roman governor, to concur in their verdict. In order to do this, they urged that Jesus imperiled the Roman supremacy.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Pilate was accustomed to deal with men, and after careful examination, was satisfied that there was no ground for the death sentence. I find no fault. As God’s Paschal Lamb, the Savior was searched to discover if there were spot, or blemish, or anything that could invalidate His claim to sinlessness. Only the sinless could save sinners. In his heart Pilate knew that our Lord should be acquitted, but his fear of the Jews deflected the verdict of his conscience. By sending the case to Herod, he hoped to get the right thing done, without incurring the odium incident to doing it.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Jealousy and fear of the Jews.
5. EFFECT: “Pilate well understood the difference between armed forces and our Lord’s followers. But instead of being softened by Pilate’s declaration of his innocence, and considering whether they were not bringing the guilt of innocent blood upon themselves, the Jews were the more angry. The Lord brings his designs to a glorious end, even by means of those who follow the devices of their own hearts. Thus all parties joined, so as to prove the innocence of Jesus, who was the atoning sacrifice for our sins.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t mess with deity!

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Before Herod): “When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. And when he learned that he belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him over to Herod, who was himself in Jerusalem at that time.” (23:6-7)
A. INFERENCE: “When Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him, and he was hoping to see some sign done by him. So he questioned him at some length, but he made no answer.” (23:8-9)
1. FINDINGS: “The chief priests and the scribes stood by, vehemently accusing him. And Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him. Then, arraying him in splendid clothing, he sent him back to Pilate.” (23:10-11)
2. CRITERIA: “Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before this they had been at enmity with each other.” (23:12)
3. CONDITION: “Pilate then called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, and said to them, ‘You brought me this man as one who was misleading the people. And after examining him before you, behold, I did not find this man guilty of any of your charges against him. Neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Look, nothing deserving death has been done by him. I will therefore punish and release him.” (23:13-17)
4. CAUSE: “Herod had heard many things of him in Galilee, and he longed to see him, but purely out of curiosity; and it was only to gratify this that he hoped to see him perform some miracle.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Miracles must not be made cheap, nor Omnipotence be at the beck and call of the greatest potentate.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t be indignant with deity!

III. KEY TEXT (Pilot Delivers Jesus to be Crucified): “But they all cried out together, ‘Away with this man, and release to us Barabbas’–a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection started in the city and for murder.” (23:18-19)
A. INFERENCE: “Pilot addressed them once more, desiring to release Jesus, but they kept shouting, ‘Crucify, crucify him!” (23:20-21)
1. FINDINGS: “A third time he said to them, ‘Why, what evil has he done? I have found in him no guilt deserving death. I will therefore punish and release him.’ But they were urgent, demanding with loud cries that he should be crucified. And their voices prevailed. So Pilate decided that their demands should be granted. He released the man who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered Jesus over to their will.” (23:22-25)
2. CRITERIA: “No basis for charges.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “Even Herod sent him back to Pilot saying his crimes are not capital.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “The people choose Barabbas released.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Pilot pleases the people.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t abuse deity.

IV. KEY TEXT (The Crucifixion): “And as they led him away, they seized one Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it behind Jesus. And there followed him a great multitude of the people and of women who were mourning and lamenting for him. But turning to them Jesus said, ‘Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for your selves and for your children.” (23:26-28)
A. INFERENCE: “For behold, the days are coming when they will say, Blessed are the barren and the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed! Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us.’ For if they do these things when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” (23:29-31)
1. FINDINGS: “Two others, who were criminals, were led away to be put to death with him. And when they came to the place that is called The Skull, there they crucified him, and the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. And Jesus said, ‘Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.’ And they cast lots to divide his garments. And the people stood by, watching, but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, ‘He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!’ The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine and saying, ‘If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!'” (23:32-37)
2. CRITERIA: “There was also an inscription over him, ‘This is the King of the Jews.'” (23:38)
3. CONDITION: “One of the criminals who were hanged railed at him, saying, ‘Are you not the Christ? Save yourself and us! But the other rebuked him, saying, ‘Do you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? And we indeed justly, for we are receiving the due reward of our deeds; but this man has done nothing wrong.’ And he said, ‘Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom. And he said to him, ‘Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.” (23:39-43)
4. CAUSE: “Crime: a grievance against the Roman government.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The people and priests drew up ‘subverting our nation’ as the slanderous charge against Jesus making him a rival against Caesar.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t slander deity.

V. KEY TEXT (The Death of Jesus): “It was now about the sixth hour (noon), and there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour (3:00pm) while the sun’s light failed.” (23:44-45)
A. INFERENCE: “And the curtain of the temple was torn in two (top to bottom).” (23:45)
1. FINDINGS: “Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!’ And having said this he breathed his last.” (23:46)
2. CRITERIA: “We have here the death of Christ magnified by the wonders that attended it, and his death explained by the words with which he breathed out his soul. He was willing to offer himself. Let us seek to glorify God by true repentance and conversion; by protesting against those who crucify the Savior; by a sober, righteous, and godly life; and by employing our talents in the service of Him who died for us and rose again.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Now when the centurion saw what had taken place, he praised God, saying, ‘Certainly this man was innocent!’ And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. And all his acquaintances and the women who had followed him from Galilee stood at a distance watching these things.” (23:47-49)
4. CAUSE: “He went to be with the Father and to make His life a guilt offering to give His life as a ransom for many.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The darkening of the sun at noon. The tearing of the curtain signified the taking away of the ceremonial law, and of all other difficulties and discouragements in our approaches to God, so that now we may approach the throne of grace with confidence.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Firmly believe in another life after this.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

VI. KEY TEXT (Jesus Is Buried): “Now there was a man named Joseph, from the Jewish town of Arimathea. He was a member of the council, a good and righteous man, who had not consented to the decision and action; and he was looking for the kingdom of God. This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then he took it down and wrapped it in a linen shroud and laid him in a tomb cut in stone, where no one had ever yet been laid.” (23:50-53)
A. INFERENCE: “It was the day of Preparation, and the Sabbath was beginning. The women who had come with him from Galilee followed and saw the tomb and how his body was laid. Then they returned and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.” (23:54-56)
1. FINDINGS: “God has His agents everywhere. They are not known to us, but are well known to Him, and one word from Him will bring them and their resources to His help.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “The body of our Lord was well cared for. They who commit themselves to God will find that He will make Himself responsible for the body, in life to feed and in death to honor; see Mat. 6:33; Deu. 34:6. The new tomb was so ordered that there could be no possible mistake in identifying the precious body, and that the Resurrection should be beyond question. Love, which clings to the last offices with tender solicitude hastened to express itself with a devotion that braved the hatred of the rulers. Darkness and silence settled on the scene-but this was not the end.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Many, though they do not make any show in outward profession, yet, like Joseph of Arimathea, will be far more ready to do real service, when there is occasion, than others who make a greater noise. Christ was buried in haste, because the Sabbath drew on. Weeping must not hinder sowing. Though they were in tears for the death of their Lord, yet they must prepare to keep holy the Sabbath. When the Sabbath draws on, there must be preparation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “God raised up a man named Joseph. His character is that he was a good and upright man, a man of unspotted reputation for virtue and piety.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “Because of Preparation Day and the Sabbath about to begin, they made haste with the funeral.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Our worldly affairs must be so ordered, that they may not hinder us from our Sabbath work; and our holy affection so stirred up, that they may carry us on in it. In whatever business we engage, or however our hearts may be affected, let us never fail to get ready for, and to keep holy, the day of sacred rest, which is the Lord’s day.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Luke 24:1, I. The Resurrection; II. On the Road to Emmaus; III. Jesus Appears to His Disciples; IV. The Ascension

I. KEY TEXT (The Resurrection): “But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they went to the tomb, taking the spices they had prepared. And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they went in they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.” (24:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel. And as they were frightened and bowed their faces to the ground, the men said to them, ‘Why do you seek the living among the dead? He is not here, but has risen. Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee, that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men and be crucified and on the third day rise.’ And they remembered his words, and returning from the tomb they told all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. Now it was Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary the mother of James and the other women with them who told these things to the apostles, but these words seemed to them an idle tale, and they did not believe them. ” (23:4-11)
1. FINDINGS: “But Peter rose and ran to the tomb; stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves; and he went home marveling at what had happened.” (23:12)
2. CRITERIA: “The most perplexing question for those who deny Christ’s resurrection is, “What became of His body if He did not rise?” If foes stole it, they would have produced it in disproof of the allegations of the Apostles. If friends had taken it, they would certainly have borne it off wrapped in the cerements of death; but these were left behind and wrapped together in such an orderly fashion that evidently there had been neither violence nor haste.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Notice the stress that the angels laid on Christ as the living one. They had doubtless overheard that sentence of His spoken in Galilee and recorded in Luke 9:22. Too many seek the living Christ amid the wrappings of ceremony and creed. He is not there. He has gone forth, and we must follow Him where Easter is breaking.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “See the affection and respect the women showed to Christ, after he was dead and buried. Observe their surprise when they found the stone rolled away, and the grave empty. Christians often perplex themselves about that with which they should comfort and encourage themselves. They look rather to find their Master in his grave-clothes, than angels in their shining garments. The angels assure them that he is risen from the dead; is risen by his own power.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Women were the first evangelist-messengers of the Resurrection. The very ardor of their belief seems to have prejudiced their message; the Apostles “dis-believed,” Luke 24:11 (R.V.). But the orderly arrangement of the tomb proved to Peter that clearly it had not been rifled.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We should avoid a backward view that he did not raise himself.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (On the Road to Emmaus): “That very day two of them were going to a village named Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem, and they were talking with each other about all these things that had happened. While they were talking and discussing together, Jesus himself drew near and went with them. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him.” (24:13-16)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘What is this conversation that you are holding with each other as you walk?’ And they stood still, looking sad. Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him, ‘Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who does not know the things that have happened there in these days?’ And he said to them, ‘What things?’ And they said to him, ‘Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, a man who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people, and how the chief priests and rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. Moreover, some women of our company amazed us. They were at the tomb early in the morning, and when they did not find his body, they came back saying that they had even seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see.'” (24:17-24)
1. FINDINGS: “And he said to them, ‘O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. So they drew near to the village to which they were going. He acted as if he were going farther, but they urged him strongly, saying, ‘Stay with us, for it is toward evening and the day is now far spent.’ So he went in to stay with them. When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed and broke it and gave it to them. And their eyes were opened, and they recognized him. And he vanished from their sight.” (24:25-31)
2. CRITERIA: “He rebukes them for the weakness of their faith in the scriptures of the Old Testament. He shows them that the sufferings of Christ were really the appointed way to his glory, and he could not go to it any other way. He expounded to them the scriptures of the Old Testament, and showed them how they were fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “They said to each other, ‘Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked to us on the road, while he opened to us the Scriptures?’ And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem. And they found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, saying, ‘The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!’ Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread.” (24:32-35)
4. CAUSE: Weak faith.
5. EFFECT: He immediately disappeared after explaining his return to glory.
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Were we more conversant in the scripture and the divine counsels as far as they are made known in the scripture, we should not be subject to such perplexities as we often entangle ourselves.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus Appears to His Disciples): “As they were talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, ‘Peace to you!’ But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw a spirit.” (24:36-37)
A. INFERENCE: “And he said to them, ‘Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.'” (24:38-39)
1. FINDINGS: “And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. And while they still disbelieved for joy and were marveling, he said to them, ‘Have you anything here to eat?’ They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate before them.” (24:40-43)
2. CRITERIA: “Then he said to them, ‘These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.'” (24:44)
3. CONDITION: “Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them, ‘Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. And behold, I am sending the promise of my Father upon you. But stay in the city until you are clothed with power (Holy Spirit) from on high.'” (24:45-49)
4. CAUSE: “His resurrection.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “The comfort Christ now spoke.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Take the proof he gave them of his resurrection, both for the silencing of their/our fears and for the strengthening of their/our faith.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

IV. KEY TEXT (The Ascension): “Then he led them out as far as Bethany (Mount of Olives), and lifting up his hands he blessed them.” (24:50)
A. INFERENCE: He departed from the Mount of Olives and he will return to the Mount of Olives (after the rapture).
1. FINDINGS: “While he blessed them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven.” (24:51)
2. CRITERIA: “The disciples did not see him rise out of the grave because his resurrection was capable of being proved by their seeing him alive afterwards.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He lifted up his hands and blessed them in love.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “He loved them to the end.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “They worshiped him. They returned to Jerusalem with great joy.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “The risen Savior is the key to Scripture. The pages of Holy Writ need the illumination that falls from His face. Whenever you open the Old Testament, described here under its customary Hebrew threefold division, be sure to ask Him to open your understanding also!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

John:1, I. The Word Became Flesh; II. The Testimony of John the Baptist; III. Behold, the Lamb of God; IV. Jesus Calls the First Disciples; V. Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael

I. KEY TEXT (The Word Became Flesh): “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.” (1:1-5)
A. INFERENCE: “There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to bear witness about the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but came to bear witness about the light.” (1:6-8)
1. FINDINGS: “The true light, which enlighten everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. But all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.” (1:9-13)
2. CRITERIA: “God spake and it was done. His words preceded the act of creation, but Christ was the Word or utterance of God. He who created time preceded time, and that which is before time is eternal and divine. Christ is the organ or medium by which God goes forth in creation, providence, and redemption. The life of God was stored in the human nature of Jesus, when the Word became flesh, that it might more readily pass into us. True life is always light, as the minute infusoria of the ocean are phosphorescent. When we receive Christ’s life, we shine.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John bore witness about him, and cried out, ‘This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.”) And from his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known.” (1:14-18)
4. CAUSE: “The blinded world knew Him not. Indeed, John 9:1-41 is a parable of mankind’s condition, 2Co. 4:4. Believing and receiving are the same thing. Let Christ in, and you have instantly the right to call yourself a child of God, Gal. 3:26. Only God can impart to us the germ of that life, which we share with the Son Himself, Jas. 1:18.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “The plainest reason why the Son of God is called the Word, seems to be, that as our words explain our minds to others, so was the Son of God sent in order to reveal his Father’s mind to the world. What the evangelist says of Christ proves that he is God. He asserts, His existence in the beginning; His coexistence with the Father. The Word was with God. All things were made by him, and not as an instrument. Without him was not any thing made that was made, from the highest angel to the meanest worm. This shows how well qualified he was for the work of our redemption and salvation.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us pray without ceasing, that our eyes may be opened to behold this Light, that we may walk in it; and thus be made wise unto salvation, by faith in Jesus Christ.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (The Testimony of John the Baptist): “And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, ‘Who are you?'” (1:19)
A. INFERENCE: “He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, ‘I am not the Christ.’ And they asked him, ‘What then? Are you Elijah?’ He said, ‘I am not.’ ‘Are you the Prophet?’ And he answered, ‘No.’ So they said to him, ‘Who are you? We need to give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?’ He said, ‘I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of the Lord, as the prophet Isaiah said.'” (1:20-23)
1. FINDINGS: “(Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.) They asked him, ‘Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?’ John answered them, ‘I baptize with water, but among you stands one you do not know, even he who comes after me, the strap of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.’ These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan, where John was baptizing.” (1:24-28)
2. CRITERIA: “He was content to decrease before the greater whom he had been taught to expect and was sent to herald. There is a sense in which the preacher of repentance must always precede the Christ. There must be a putting away of known sin, previous to the recognition of the Lamb of God. But how great must Christ be, when so noble a man as the Baptist felt unworthy to unloose His sandals!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John the Baptist came to bear witness concerning Jesus. Nothing more fully shows the darkness of men’s minds, than that when the Light had appeared, there needed a witness to call attention to it. Christ was the true Light; that great Light which deserves to be called so. By his Spirit and grace he enlightens all that are enlightened to salvation; and those that are not enlightened by him, perish in darkness.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “Many say that they are Christ’s own, yet do not receive him, because they will not part with their sins, nor have him to reign over them. All the children of God are born again. This new birth is through the word of God as the means, 1 Peter 1:23, and by the Spirit of God as the Author.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “His Divine glory appeared in the holiness of his doctrine, and in his miracles. He was full of grace, fully acceptable to his Father, therefore qualified to plead for us; and full of truth, fully aware of the things he was to reveal.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “He baptized the people with water as a profession of repentance, and as an outward sign of the spiritual blessings to be conferred on them by the Messiah, who was in the midst of them, though they knew him not, and to whom he was unworthy to render the meanest service.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

III. KEY TEXT (Behold, the Lamb of God): “The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! This is he of whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who ranks before me, because he was before me.’ I myself did not know him, but for this purpose I came baptizing with water, that he might be revealed to Israel.'” (1:29-31)
A. INFERENCE: “And John bore witness: ‘I saw the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him.” (1:32)
1. FINDINGS: “I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. And I have seen and have borne witness that this is the Son of God.” (1:33-34)
2. CRITERIA: “The general reader of the story of our Lord’s baptism probably supposes that the sign of the descending dove and the sound of the Father’s voice were apprehended by all the crowd. This, however, was not the case. John had been previously informed that some day one, indicated by those signs, would come to His baptism. John was the porter of the door of the fold, and it was necessary to certify the true Shepherd when He appeared, John 10:3. To our Lord this was the beginning of His ministry. The heavenly powers were opened to Him, which He was in turn to open to all who believe and cooperate with Him for the regeneration of the world.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John saw Jesus coming to him, and pointed him out as the Lamb of God. The paschal lamb, in the shedding and sprinkling of its blood, the roasting and eating of its flesh, and all the other circumstances of the ordinance, represented the salvation of sinners by faith in Christ. And the lambs sacrificed every morning and evening, can only refer to Christ slain as a sacrifice to redeem us to God by his blood.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “It agrees with God’s glory to pardon all who depend on the atoning sacrifice of Christ. He takes away the sin of the world; purchases pardon for all that repent and believe the gospel. This encourages our faith; if Christ takes away the sin of the world, then why not my sin? He bore sin for us, and so bears it from us.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “See Jesus taking away sin, and let that cause hatred of sin, and resolutions against it.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us not hold that fast, which the Lamb of God came to take away.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

IV. KEY TEXT (Jesus Calls the First Disciples): “The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples, and he looked at Jesus as he walked by and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God!'” (1:35-36)
A. INFERENCE: “The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. Jesus turned and saw them following and said to them, ‘What are you seeking?’ And they said to him, ‘Rabbi’ (which means Teacher), ‘where are you staying?’ He said to them, ‘Come and you will see.’ So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour.” (1:37-39)
1. FINDINGS: “One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, ‘We have found the Messiah’ (which means Christ). He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, ‘So you are Simon the son of John? You shall be called ‘Cephas’ (which means Peter).” (1:40-42)
2. CRITERIA: “On this third day John again looked eagerly and wistfully on Jesus as He walked. He spoke of Him again as God’s Lamb, and there was a significance in His words that was instantly detected by the two disciples-probably John and Andrew-who stood beside him. He intended to transfer their allegiance from himself to the Lord. Henceforth they were to behold Him. So, at least, they understood it. We are told that they followed Jesus.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “John intended for his two disciples to follow Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “He did not reckon that he lost those disciples who went over from him to Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “John gathered disciples not for himself, but for Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Giving as did John, did not diminish himself; he increased Christ.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

V. KEY TEXT (Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael): “The next day Jesus decided to go to Galilee. He found Philip and said to him, ‘Follow me.’ Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip found Nathanael and said to him, ‘We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.’ Nathanael said to him, ‘Can anything good come out of Nazareth? Philip said to him, ‘Come and see.'” (1:43-46)
A. INFERENCE: “Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, ‘Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit!” (1:47)
1. FINDINGS: “Nathanael said to him, ‘How do you know me?’ Jesus answered him, ‘Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.’ Nathanael answered him, ‘Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” (1:48-49)
2. CRITERIA: “Jesus answered him, ‘Because I said to you, ‘I saw you under the fig tree,’ do you believe? You will see greater things than these.'” (1:50)
3. CONDITION: “And he said to him, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.'” (1:51)
4. CAUSE: “Jesus is always showing us greater things, John 1:50. He leads His disciples onward and upward, for He is Himself the ladder of ascent to God.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “See the nature of true Christianity, it is following Jesus; devoting ourselves to him, and treading in his steps. Observe the objection Nathaniel made. All who desire to profit by the word of God, must beware of prejudices against places, or denominations of men. They should examine for themselves, and they will sometimes find good where they looked for none. Many people are kept from the ways of religion by the unreasonable prejudices they conceive. The best way to remove false notions of religion, is to make trial of it. In Nathaniel there was no guile. His profession was not hypocritical. He was not a dissembler, nor dishonest; he was a sound character, a really upright, godly man.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Let us seek and pray to be Israelites indeed, in whom is no guile; truly Christians, approved of Christ himself. Some things weak, imperfect, and sinful, are found in all, but hypocrisy belongs not to a believer’s character.” (Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary)

Week #134; Wed, Jul 22: John 2–6

Week #134; Wed, Jul 22: John 2:1–6:71

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

John 2:1, I. The Wedding at Cana; II. Jesus Cleanses the Temple; III. Jesus Knows What Is in Man

I. KEY TEXT (The Wedding at Cana): “On the third day there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. Jesus also was invited to the wedding with his disciples. When the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus said to him, ‘They have no wine.’ ” (2:1-3)
A. INFERENCE: “And Jesus said to her, ‘Woman, what does this have to do with me? My hour has not yet come.’ His mother said to the servants, ‘Do whatever he tells you.'” (2:4-5)
1. FINDINGS: “Now there were six stone water jars there for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons. Jesus said to the servants, ‘Fill the jars with water.’ And they filled them up to the brim. And he said to them, ‘Now draw some out and take it to the master of the feast. So they took it. When the master of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew) the master of the feast called the bridegrooom and said to him, ‘Everyone serves the good wine first, and when people have drunk freely, then the poor wine. But you have kept the good wine until no.'” (2:6-10)
2. CRITERIA: “This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him.” (2:11)
3. CONDITION: “After this he went down to Capernaum, with his mother and his brothers and his disciples, and they stayed there for a few days.” (2:12)
4. CAUSE: “The Lord loved to join in simple human joys. ‘He came eating and drinking.’ He honored marriage by His first miracle. The wine had to fail, as the earthly and human always must, in order to make room for the eternal and divine. Like Mary, we are impetuous, and would hasten the divine actions: but God is ever deliberate and waits for the exact hour before He interposes. It is hardly likely that our Lord made one hundred and thirty gallons of wine; but that as the servants drew and bore to the table, the wondrous change was wrought. Our Lord did in a moment what He is ever doing, transforming dews and rain into the nutritive and gladdening juices of nature.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Here was indeed a sign that the Master desired to sweeten and enhance human happiness, and that His influence could transform what was ordinary and common into the joyous and sacramental. It was His glory to show that religion is consistent with ordinary life, and to teach that God increases our joys from less to more, and still more. ‘The best is yet to be.'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Those whom he had called, now saw this, shared in it, and had their faith strengthened by it. Even the faith that is true is at first but weak. The strongest men were once babes, so were the strongest Christians.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Cleanses the Temple): “The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and pigeons, and the money-changers sitting there. And making a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and oxen. And he poured out the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. And he told those who sold the pigeons, ‘Take these things away; do not make my Father’s house a house of trade.'” (2:13-16)
A. INFERENCE: “His disciples remembered that it was written, ‘Zeal for your house will consume me.'” (2:17)
1. FINDINGS: “So the Jews said to him, ‘What sign do you show us for doing these things? Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.’ The Jews then said, ‘It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you will raise it up in three days?'” (2:18-20)
2. CRITERIA: “But he was speaking about the temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.” (2:21-22)
3. CONDITION: “This market was established in the Temple courts, and many evils were associated with it. The animals were sold at exorbitant prices, which made the dealers only the more covetous. The money-changers made considerable profit in supplying Jewish coins-which alone could be offered in the Temple service-in exchange for Roman and Greek money. Our Lord’s presence was august, His soul being aflame with the passion of zeal for His Father’s honor. The consciences of those who offended were smitten by the contrast between that holy zeal and their own eagerness to barter.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: Greed, love of money.
5. EFFECT: “Our Lord’s reference to His body as the true temple is very impressive and interesting. The Apostle adverts to it in 1 Co. 6:19. As Jesus cleansed the Temple so He can cleanse our hearts. When He comes to dwell within us, He finds our hearts desecrated by unholy things, which He quickly casts out. He sits as a refiner of silver: His fan is in His hand, and He thoroughly purges His floor. Our Lord’s reference to the distraction of His body, by the act of the Jewish leaders, and to His resurrection, proves that from the first He had His sacrifice well before His eyes.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Don’t profane the house of God.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)

III. KEY TEXT (Jesus Knows What Is in Man): “Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs that he was doing.” (2:23)
A. INFERENCE: “But Jesus on his part did not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people and needed no one to bear witness about man, for he himself knew what was in man.” (2:24-25)
1. FINDINGS: “A solemn question is suggested by John 2:24. Can Jesus trust Himself to us? We must show ourselves worthy of His trust. In John 3:1-36; John 4:1-54 we have two remarkable instances of the Lord’s intimate knowledge of the human heart.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “He knew all men, not only their names and faces, as it is possible for us to know many, but their nature, dispositions, affections, intentions, as we do not know any man, scarcely ourselves.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
3. CONDITION: “He knows those who are truly his, knows their integrity and knows their infirmity too. He did not need man’s testimony about man.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
4. CAUSE: “His knowledge was not by information from others, but by his own infallible intuition.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
5. EFFECT: “He knew what was in a man.” (Matthew Henry Commentary In One Volume)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Know that we are on display.

John 3:1, I. You Must Be Born Again; II. For God So Loved the World; III. John the Baptist Exalts Christ

I. KEY TEXT (You Must Be Born Again): “Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.” (3:1)
A. INFERENCE: “This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, ‘Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do unless God is with him.'” (3:2)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus answered him, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.'” (3:3)
2. CRITERIA: “Nicodemus said to him, ‘How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born?” (3:4)
3. CONDITION: “Jesus answered, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.’ Nicodemus said to him, ‘How can these things be?’ Jesus answered him, ‘Are you the teacher of Israel and yet you do not understand these things? Truly, truly, I say to you, we speak of what we know, and bear witness to what we have seen but you do not receive our testimony. If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you heavenly things? No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that whoever believes in him may have eternal life. ” (3:5-15)
4. CAUSE: “Thus, while unable to repress his (Nicodemus) convictions, he is afraid of committing himself too far. John 3:2” (James, Fausset, Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “Nicodemus probably thought he had gone a long way, and expected, perhaps, to be complimented on his candor. Instead of this, he is virtually told that he has raised a question which he is not in a capacity to solve, and that before approaching it, his spiritual vision required to be rectified by an entire revolution on his inner man. John 3:3” (James, Fausset, Brown Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t hold back; follow the Spirit.

II. KEY TEXT (For God So Loved the World): “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.” (3:16)
A. INFERENCE: “For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.” (3:17)
1. FINDINGS: “Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.” (3:18)
2. CRITERIA: “And this is the judgment: the light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the light because their works were evil.” (3:19)
3. CONDITION: “For everyone who does wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his works should be exposed.” (3:20)
4. CAUSE: “But whoever does what is true comes to the light, so that it may be clearly seen that his works have been carried out in God.” (3:21)
5. EFFECT: “. . . the light has come into the world, . . . ” (3:19)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Come to the light; come to Jesus.

III. KEY TEXT (John the Baptist Exalts Christ): “After this Jesus and his disciples went into the Judean countryside, and he remained there with them and was baptizing. John also was baptizing at Aenon near Salim, because water was plentiful there, and people were coming and being baptized (for John had not yet been put in prison)” (3:22-24)
A. INFERENCE: “Now a discussion arose between some of John’s disciples and a Jew over purification.” (3:25)
1. FINDINGS: “And they came to John and said to him, ‘Rabbi, he who was with you across the Jordan, to whom you bore witness–look, he is baptizing, and all are going to him.'” (3:26)
2. CRITERIA: “John answered, ‘A person cannot receive even one thing unless it is given him from heaven. You yourselves bear me witness, that I said, ‘I am not the Christ, but I have been sent before him.’ The one who has the bride is the bridegroom. The friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly at the bridegroom’s voice. Therefore this joy of mine is now complete. He must increase, but I must decrease.” (3:27-30)
3. CONDITION: “He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all. He bears witness to what he has seen and heard, yet no one receives his testimony. Whoever receives his testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true. For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.” (3:31-34)
4. CAUSE: “The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand. Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.” (3:35-36)
5. EFFECT: “For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.” (3:34)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Seek the Spirit; claim the Spirit when it comes to you.

John 4:1, I. Jesus and the Woman of Samaria; II. Jesus Heals an Official’s Son

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus and the Woman of Samaria): “Now when Jesus learned that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John (although Jesus himself did not baptize, but only his disciples), he left Judea and departed again for Galilee. And he had to pass through Samaria. So he came to a town of Samaria called Sychar, near the field that Jacob had given to his son Joseph. Jacob’s well was there; so Jesus, wearied as he was from his journey, was sitting beside the well. It was about the sixth hour (noon).” (4:1-6)
A. INFERENCE: “A woman from Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, ‘Give me a drink.’ (For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food.) The Samaritan woman said to him, ‘How is it that you, a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a woman of Samaria?’ (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) Jesus answered her, ‘If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.’ The woman said to him, ‘Sir, you have nothing to draw water with, and the well is deep. Where do you get that living water? Are you greater than our father Jacob? He gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did his sons and his livestock.'” (4:1-12)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus said to her, ‘Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again, but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again. The water that I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.’ The woman said to him, ‘Sir, give me this water, so that I will not be thirsty or have to come here to draw water.'” (4:13-15)
2. CRITERIA: “Jesus said to her, ‘Go, call your husband, and come here.’ The woman answered him, ‘I have no husband.’ Jesus said to her, ‘You are right in saying, ‘I have no husband’; for you have had five husbands, and the one you now have is not your husband. What you have said is true.’ The woman said to him, ‘Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, but you say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship.'” (4:16-20)
3. CONDITION: “Jesus said to her, ‘Woman, believe me,’ worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.'” (4:21-24)
4. CAUSE: “The woman said to him, ‘I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ). When he comes, he will tell us all things.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I who speak to you am he.” (4:25-26)
5. EFFECT: “Just then his disciples came back. They marveled that he was talking with a woman, but no one said, ‘What do you seek?’ or, ‘Why are you talking with her?’ So the woman left her water jar and went away into town and said to the people, ‘Come, see a man who told me all that I ever did. Can this be the Christ?’ They went out of the town and were coming to him.” Meanwhile the disciples were urging him, saying, ‘Rabbi, eat.’ But he said to them, ‘I have food to eat that you do not know about.’ So the disciples said to one another, ‘Has anyone brought him something to eat?’ Jesus said to them, ‘My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work. Do you not say, ‘There are yet four months, then comes the harvest’? Look, I tell you, lift up your eyes, and see that the fields are white for harvest.’? Already the one who reaps is receiving wages and gathering fruit for eternal life, so that sower and reaper may rejoice together. For here the saying holds true, ‘One sows and another reaps.’ I sent you to reap that for which you did not labor. Others have labored, and you have entered into their labor. Many Samaritans from that town believed in him because of the woman’s testimony, ‘He told me all that I ever did.’ So when the Samaritans came to him, they asked him to stay with them, and he stayed there two days. And many more believed because of his word. They said to the woman, ‘It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world. After two days he departed for Galilee. (For Jesus himself had testified that a prophet has no honor in his own hometown.) So when he came to Galilee, the Galileans welcomed him, having seen all that he had done in Jerusalem at the feast. For they too had gone to the feast. (4:27-45)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.” (4:34) Do likewise.

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Heals an Official’s Son): “So he came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. And at Capernaum where was an official whose son was ill. When this man heard that Jesus had come from Judea to Galilee, he went to him and asked him to come down and heal his son, for he was at the point of death.” (4:46-47)
A. INFERENCE: “So Jesus said to him, ‘Unless you see signs and wonders you will not believe.’ The official said to him, ‘Sir, come down before my child dies.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Go; your son will live.’ The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him and went on his way.” (4:48-50)
1. FINDINGS: “As he was going down, his servants met him and told him that his son was recovering. So he asked them the hour when he began to get better, and they said to him, ‘Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.’ ” (4:51-52)
2. CRITERIA: “The father knew that was the hour when Jesus had said to him, ‘Your son will live.’ And he himself believed, and all his household. ” (4:53)
3. CONDITION: “This was now the second sign that Jesus did when he had come from Judea to Galilee.” (4:54)
4. CAUSE: Belief.
5. EFFECT: Healing.
6. RECOMMENDATION: Faith.

John 5:1, I. The Healing at the Pool on the Sabbath; II. Jesus is Equal with God; III. The Authority of the Son; IV. Witnesses to Jesus

I. KEY TEXT (The Healing at the Pool on the Sabbath): “After this there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate a pool, in Aramaic called Bethesda, which has five roofed colonnades. In these lay a multitude of invalids–blind, lame, and paralyzed. One man was there who had been an invalid for thirty-eight years.” (5:1-5)
A. INFERENCE: “When Jesus saw him lying there and knew that he had already been there a long time, he said to him, ‘Do you want to be healed?’ The sick man answered him, ‘Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, and while I am going another steps down before me.'” (5:6-7)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus said to him, ‘Get up, take up your bed, and walk.’ And at once the man was healed, and he took up his bed and walked.” (5:8)
2. CRITERIA: “Now that day was the Sabbath. So the Jews said to the man who had been healed, ‘It is the Sabbath, and it is not lawful for you to take up your bed.’ But he answered them, ‘The man who healed me, that man said to me, ‘Take up your bed, and walk.'” (5:9-11)
3. CONDITION: “They asked him, ‘Who is the man who said to you, ‘Take up your bed and walk’?’ Now the man who had been healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn, as there was a crowd in the place. Afterward Jesus found him in the temple and said to him, ‘See, you are well! Sin no more, that nothing worse may happen to you.” (5:12-14)
4. CAUSE: “The man went away and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had healed him.” (5:15)
5. EFFECT: “And this was why the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath. But Jesus answered them, ‘My Father is working until now, and I am working.” (5:16-17)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Expect new energy through faith.

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus is Equal with God): “This is why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” (5:18)
A. INFERENCE: “In the foregoing incident our Lord not only healed the sufferer after thirty-eight years of deferred hope, but did so on the Sabbath, and bade him carry his bed home. This clashed with Pharisaic prescriptions; but the man was of course right to infer that He who would work so great a miracle was greater than either the Pharisee or mere ritual. His judges, however, were little prepared for His line of defense, which revealed the depths of our Lord’s inner consciousness.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
1. FINDINGS: “First, He spoke of God as His own Father, making Himself God’s equal. See Php. 2:6. Second, He said that God was working through His life and had energized Him to perform that miracle of healing.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
2. CRITERIA: “It was not His own deed but the Father’s in Him and through Him. If, then, they condemned it, they were in direct collision with the Infinite One, from whom the Sabbath law had originally come.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “The religious leaders of that time, like those of all time, could not tolerate the setting up of an authority superior to their own, by one who was outside their ranks; and they accused Jesus of Sabbath-breaking.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “. . . making himself equal with God–rightly gathering this to be His meaning, not from the mere words “My Father,” but from His claim of right to act as His Father did in the like high sphere, and by the same law of ceaseless activity in that sphere. And as, instead of instantly disclaiming any such meaning–as He must have done if it was false–He positively sets His seal to it in the following verses, merely explaining how consistent such claim was with the prerogatives of His Father, it is beyond all doubt that we have here an assumption of peculiar personal Sonship, or participation in the Father’s essential nature. John 5:18″ (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “. . . the Son can do nothing of himself–that is, apart from and in rivalry of the Father, as they supposed. The meaning is, “The Son can have no separate interest or action from the Father.” John 5:19″ (Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Have faith.

III. KEY TEXT (The Authority of the Son): “So Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise. For the Father loves the Son and shows him all that he himself is doing. And greater works than these will he show him, so that you may marvel. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will.” (5:19-21)
A. INFERENCE: “The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father.” (5:22-23)
1. FINDINGS: “Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.” (5:23)
2. CRITERIA: “Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life.” (5:24)
3. CONDITION: “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” (5:25-29)
4. CAUSE: “The relationship of our Lord to the Father was such that He felt Himself competent to fulfill all the functions of the Divine Being. Is it God’s prerogative to raise the dead? It is also Jesus Christ’s. The Son quickeneth whom He will, John 5:21. Is it the divine right to be the judge of man? It is also the Redeemer’s right. See John 5:22.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “This is also an attribute of our blessed Lord. So hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself, John 5:26. The entire sum of the attributes of Deity are resident in the nature of the Son of man. But though all divine attributes were his, and might have been called into operation, He forebore to use them, that He might learn the life of dependence and faith, the life which was to become ours towards Himself.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “Listen for the voice of the Son of God; do good to the resurrection of life.” (5:25-29)

IV. KEY TEXT (Witnesses to Jesus): “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me. If I alone bear witness about myself, my testimony is not deemed true. There is another who bears witness about me, and I know that the testimony that he bears about me is true. You sent to John, and he has borne witness to the truth. Not that the testimony that I received is from man, but I say these things so that you may be saved” (5:30-34)
A. INFERENCE: “He (John) was a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. But the testimony that I have is greater than that of John. For the works that the Father has given me to accomplish, the very works that I am doing, bear witness about me that the Father has sent me.” (5:35-36)
1. FINDINGS: “And the Father who sent me has himself borne witness about me. His voice you have never heard, his form you have never seen, and you do not have his word abiding in you, for you do not believe the one whom he has sent.” (5:37-38)
2. CRITERIA: “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is they that bear witness about me, yet you refuse to come to me that you may have life.” (5:39-40)
3. CONDITION: “I do not receive glory from people. But I know that you do not have the love of God within you. I have come in my Father’s name, and you do not receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and do not seek the glory that comes from the only God?” (5:41-44)
4. CAUSE: “Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one who accuses you: Moses, on whom you have set your hope.” (5:45)
5. EFFECT: “For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote of me. But if you do not believe his writings how will you believe my words?” (5:46-47)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Listen and believe his words from both the “old, before current era (BCE)” and the “new, current era (CE).”

John 6:1, I. Jesus Feeds the Five Thousand; II. Jesus Walks on Water; III. I Am the Bread of Life; IV. The Words of Eternal Life

I. KEY TEXT (Jesus Feeds the Five Thousand): “After this Jesus went away to the other side of the Sea of Galilee, which is the Sea of Tiberias. And a large crowd was following him, because they saw the signs that he was doing on the sick. Jesus went up on the mountain, and there he sat down with his disciples. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. Lifting up his eyes, then, and seeing that a large crowd was coming toward him, Jesus said to Philip, ‘Where are we to buy bread, so that these people may eat? He said this to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered him, ‘Two hundred denarii would not buy enough bread for each of them to get a little.'” (6:1-7)
A. INFERENCE: “One of his disciples, Andrew Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, ‘There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are they for so many?” (6:8-9)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus said, ‘Have the people sit down.’ Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, about five thousand in number. Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated. So also the fish, as much as they wanted. And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, ‘Gather up the leftover fragments, that nothing may be lost.'” (6:10-12)
2. CRITERIA: “So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with fragments from the five barley loaves left by those who had eaten.” (6:13)
3. CONDITION: “When the people saw the sign that he had done, they said, ‘This is indeed the Prophet who is to come into the world!” (6:14)
4. CAUSE: “Perceiving then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the mountain by himself.” (6:15)
5. EFFECT: “Christ often tests us to see what we shall say and do in the presence of overwhelming difficulty, but He always knows the way out. We at once begin to calculate our paltry resources, and to confess their inadequacy. We come back to explain that when we have done our utmost, we can provide very little. Then He steps in, determined that everyone shall be filled, with an ample supply left over.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: “We must bring Him what we have, however slender; must enter into His great plan and arrange the people for the banquet; must distribute the food and gather up the broken pieces.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)

II. KEY TEXT (Jesus Walks on Water): “When evening came, his disciples went down to the sea, got into a boat and started across the sea to Capernaum. It was now dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them. The sea became rough because a strong wind was blowing.” (6:16-18)
A. INFERENCE: “When they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and coming near the boat, and they were frightened.” (6:19)
1. FINDINGS: “But he said to them, ‘It is I; do not be afraid.’ Then they were glad to take him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land to which they were going.” (6:20-21)
2. CRITERIA: “He knew when he pressed the disciples into the boat, that the night would be full of storm, but He did not hesitate to expose them to its peril; he was conscious of His ability to turn that storm to the highest use by coming to their help. His advent is often delayed, but he always comes.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
3. CONDITION: “Delays are not denials. He is as near in the storm as though already in the boat. The storm-waves are His pathway. Be not afraid!” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “He saw them toiling in rowing. John 6:18” (Mark 6:48)
5. EFFECT: “It is I, do not be afraid.” (Matt. 14:26)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Don’t be afraid.

III. KEY TEXT (I Am the Bread of Life): “On the next day the crowd that remained on the other side of the sea saw that there had been only one boat there, and that Jesus had not entered the boat with his disciples, but that his disciples had gone away alone. Other boats from Tiberias came near the place where they had eaten the bread after the Lord had given thanks.” (6:22-23)
A. INFERENCE: “So when the crowd saw that Jesus was not there, nor his disciples, they themselves got into the boats and went to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. When they found him on the other side of the sea, they said to him, ‘Rabbi, when did you come here?’ Jesus answered them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, you are seeking me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate your fill of the loaves. Do not labor for the food that perishes, but for the food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For on him God the Father has set his seal. Then they said to him, ‘What must we do, to be doing the works of God?’ Jesus answered them, ‘This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.’ So they said to him, ‘Then what sign do you do, that we may see and believe you? What work do you perform? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.” Jesus then said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.’ They said to him, ‘Sir, give us this bread always.’ Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger and whoever believes in me shall never thirst. But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe. All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me. And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on the last day. For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. So the Jews grumbled about him, because he said, ‘I am the bread that came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How does he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?'” (6:24-42)
1. FINDINGS: “Jesus answered them, ‘Do not grumble among yourselves. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day.'” (6:43-44)
2. CRITERIA: “It is written in the Prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ ‘Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me–not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes has eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died.'” (6:45-49)
3. CONDITION: “‘This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread that came down form heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.'” (6:50-51)
4. CAUSE: “The Jews then disputed among themselves, saying, ‘How can this man give us his flesh to eat?’ So Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you.'” (6:52-53)
5. EFFECT: “‘Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like the bread the fathers ate and died. Whoever feeds on this bread will live forever.’ Jesus said these things in the synagogue, as he taught at Capernaum.” (6:54-59)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Believe, come to Jesus.

IV. KEY TEXT (The Words of Eternal Life): “When many of his disciples heard it, they said ‘This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?’ But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples were grumbling about this, said to them, ‘Do you take offense at this?” (6:60-61)
A. INFERENCE: “Then what if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life. But there are some of you who do not believe.’ (For Jesus knew from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.) And he said, ‘This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless it is granted him by the Father.'” (6:62-65)
1. FINDINGS: “After this many of his disciples turned back and no longer walked with him. So Jesus said to the Twelve, ‘Do you want to go away as well?’ Simon Peter answered him, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.'” (6:66-69)
2. CRITERIA: “Jesus answered them, ‘Did I not choose you, the Twelve? and yet one of you is a devil.’ He spoke of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for he, one of the Twelve, was going to betray him.” (6:70-71)
3. CONDITION: “The teaching of this chapter involves a deliberate act of Christ to arrest the revolutionary movement that was gathering around His person and making Him its figure-head, John 6:15. He therefore set Himself to teach that these people had misconceived the meaning of His ministry, which was not intended to raise a standard of revolt against Rome, but to lead to a spiritual revolution. The effect of His words was precisely what he expected, and must have shattered any ambitions that had begun to stir in the hearts of His disciples.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
4. CAUSE: “In John 6:41 the men who the night before wished to crown Him, murmured at Him. In John 6:52 they strove among themselves. In John 6:60 many of His disciples said that His sayings were hard to be understood, and still harder to be obeyed. In John 6:66 many went back.” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
5. EFFECT: “And now as the shades of evening began to fall and the synagogue was almost empty, he was left alone with the little company of twelve, who had sorrowfully watched the overthrow of their hopes. Christ’s pathetic question-Will ye also go away?-elicited from Peter a reply which proved that the inner meaning of His words had already broken upon their souls. ‘Thy words give us and nourish within us the eternal life.'” (F. B. Meyer Commentary)
6. RECOMMENDATION: Follow; don’t turn back.