Week #117; Wed, Mar 25: Amos 8:1–Obadiah–Jonah–Micha 6:16

CHAPTER OBSERVATIONS:

Amos 8, The Coming Day of Bitter Mourning

I. KEY TEXT: “This is what the Lord showed me: behold, a basket of summer fruit. And he said, ‘Amos, what do you see?’ And I said, ‘A basket of summer fruit.’ Then the Lord said to me, ‘The end has come upon my people Israel; I will never again pass by them. The songs of the temple shall become wailings in that day,’ declares the Lord God. ‘So many dead bodies!’ ‘They are thrown everywhere!’ ‘Silence!'” (8:1-3)

A. INFERENCE: “Hear this, you who trample on the needy and bring the poor of the land to an end, saying, ‘When will the new moon be over, that we may sell grain? And the Sabbath, that we may offer wheat for sale, that we may make the ephah small and the shekel great and deal deceitfully with false balances, that we may buy the poor for silver and the needy for a pair of sandals and sell the chaff of the wheat?'” (8:4-6)

1. FINDINGS: “The Lord has sworn by the pride of Jacob: ‘Surely I will never forget any of their deeds. Shall not the land tremble on this account, and everyone mourn who dwells in it, and all of it rise like the Nile, and be tossed about and sink again, like the Nile of Egypt?'” (8:7-8)

2. CRITERIA: “‘And on that day,’ declares the Lord God, ‘I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth in broad daylight. I will turn your feasts into mourning and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth on every waist and baldness on every head; I will make it like the mourning for an only son and the end of it like a bitter day.” (8:9-10)

3. CONDITION: “‘Behold, the days are coming,’ declares the Lord God, ‘when I will send a famine on the land–not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord.'” (8:11)

4. CAUSE: “Deceit.” (8:5)

5. EFFECT: “They shall wander from sea to sea, and from north to east; they shall run to and fro, to seek the word of the Lord, but they shall not find it. ‘In that day the lovely virgins and the young men shall faint for thirst. Those who swear by the Guilt of Samaria, and say, ‘As your god lives, O Dan,’ and, ‘As the Way of Beersheba lives,’ they shall fail, and never rise again.'” (8:12-14)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Hope for relief and restoration by the Lord God.” (9:14)

Amos 9, The Destruction of Israel; The Restoration of Israel

I. KEY TEXT: “I saw the Lord standing beside the altar, and he said: ‘Strike the capitals until the thresholds shake, and shatter them on the heads of all the people; and those who are left of them I will kill with the sword; not one of them shall flee away; not one of them shall escape.” (9:1)

A. INFERENCE: “If they dig into Sheol, from there shall my hand take them; if they climb up to heaven, from there I will bring them down. If they hide themselves on the top of Carmel, from there I will search them out and take them; and if they hide from my sight at the bottom of the sea, there I will command the serpent, and it shall bite them. And if they go into captivity before their enemies, there I will command the sword, and it shall kill them; and I will fix my eyes upon them for evil and not for good.” (9:2-4)

1. FINDINGS: “Behold, the eyes of the Lord God are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from the surface of the ground, except that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob,’ declares the Lord. ‘For behold, I will command, and shake the house of Israel among all the nations as one shakes with a sieve, but no pebble shall fall to the earth. All the sinners of my people shall die by the sword, who say, ‘Disaster shall not overtake or meet us.'” (9:8-10)

2. CRITERIA: “Did I not bring up Israel from the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir? (9:7)

3. CONDITION: “All the sinners of my people shall die by the sword, who say, ‘Disaster shall not overtake or meet us.'” (9:10)

4. CAUSE: Sinful kingdom and a false sense of security. (9:8, 10)

5. EFFECT: “Pending destruction (except for Jacob).” (9:8)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Hope for relief and restoration by the Lord God.” (9:14)

B. INFERENCE: “In that day I will raise up the booth of David that is fallen and repair its breaches, and raise up its ruins and rebuild it as in the days of old, that they may possess the remnant of Edom and all the nations who are called by my name, declares the Lord who does this.” (9:11-12)

1. FINDINGS: “Behold, the days are coming,’ declares the Lord, ‘when the plowman shall overtake the reaper and the treador of grapes him who sows the seed; the mountains shall drip sweet wine, and all the hills shall flow with it.” (9:13)

2. CRITERIA: “I will restore the fortunes of my people Israel, and they shall rebuild the ruined cities and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and drink their wine, and they shall make gardens and eat their fruit.” (9:14-15)

3. CONDITION: “. . . they shall rebuild the ruined cities and inhabit them . . .” (9:14)

4. CAUSE: “Sinful kingdom.” (9:8)

5. EFFECT: “I will restore the fortunes of my people Israel . . .” (9:14)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Hope for relief and restoration by the Lord God.” (9:14)

Obadiah 1, Edom Will Be Humbled; Edom’s Violence Against Jacob; The Day of the Lord Is Near; The Kingdom of the Lord

I. KEY TEXT: “Thus says the Lord God concerning Edom: We have heard a report from the Lord, and a messenger has been sent among the nations: ‘Rise up! Let us rise against her for battle! Behold, I will make you small among the nations; you shall be utterly despised.” (1:1-2)

A. INFERENCE: “Though you soar aloft like the eagle, though your nest is set among the stars, from there I will bring you down, declares the Lord.” (1:4)

1. FINDINGS: “Will I not on that day, declares the Lord, destroy the wise men out of Edom, and understanding out of Mount Esau? And your mighty men shall be dismayed, O Teman, so that every man from Mount Esau will be cut off by slaughter.” (1:8-9)

2. CRITERIA: “For the day of the Lord is near upon all the nations. As you have done, it shall be done to you; your deeds shall return on your own head. For as you have drunk on my holy mountain, so all the nations shall drink continually; they shall drink and swallow, and shall be as though they had never been.” (1:15-16)

3. CONDITION: “Because of the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.” (1:10)

4. CAUSE: “The pride of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rock, in your lofty dwelling, who say in your heart, ‘Who will bring me down to the ground?'” (1:3)

5. EFFECT: “But in Mount Zion there shall be those who escape, and it shall be holy, and the house of Jacob shall possess their own possessions. The house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau, stubble; they shall burn them and consume them, and there shall be no survivor for the house of Esau for the Lord has spoken.” (1:17-18)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Those of the Negev shall possess Mount Esau, and those of the Shephelah shall possess the land of the Philistines; they shall possess the land of Ephraim and land of Samaria, and Benjamin shall possess Gilead. The exiles of this host of the people of Israel shall possess the land of the Canaanites as far as Zarephath, and the exiles of Jerusalem who are in Sepharad shall possess the cities of the Negev. Saviors shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau, and the kingdom shall be the Lord’s.” (1:19-21)

Jonah 1, Jonah Flees the Presence of the Lord

I. KEY TEXT: “Now the word of the Lord came to Jonah the son of Amittai, saying, ‘Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and call out against it, for their evil has come up before me.’ But Jonah rose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. He went down to Joppa and found a ship going to Tarshish. So he paid the fare and went on board, to go with them to Tarshish, away for the presence of the Lord.” (1:1-3)

A. INFERENCE: “But the Lord hurled a great wind upon the sea, and there was a mighty tempest on the sea, so that the ship threatened to break up.” (1:4)

1. FINDINGS: “And they said to one another, ‘Come, let us cast lots, that we may know on whose account this evil has come upon us.’ So they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah.” (1:7)

2. CRITERIA: “Then they said to him, ‘Tell us on whose account this evil has come upon us. What is your occupation? And where do you come from? What is your country? and of what people are you?” (1:8)

3. CONDITION: “Then the mariners were afraid, and each cried out to his god. And they hurled the cargo that was in the ship into the sea to lighten it for them.” (1:5)

4. CAUSE: “The evil of Nineveh.” (1:2)

5. EFFECT: “For the men knew that he was fleeing from the presence of the Lord, because he had told them.” (1:9)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Then they said to him, ‘What shall we do to you, that the sea may quiet down for us?’ For the sea grew more and more tempestuous. He said to them, ‘Pick me up and hurl me into the sea; then the sea will quiet down for you, for I know it is because of me that this great tempest has come upon you.’ So they picked up Jonah and hurled him into the sea, and the sea ceased from its raging. And the Lord appointed a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.” (1:11-12, 15, 17)

Jonah 2, Jonah’s Prayer

I. KEY TEXT: “Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish, saying, ‘I called out to the Lord, out of my distress, and he answered me; out of the belly of sheol I cried, and you heard my voice. For you cast me into the deep, into the heart of the seas, and the flood surrounded me; all your waves and your billows passed over me. Then I said, I am driven away from your sight; yet I shall again look upon your holy temple.’ The waters closed in over me to take my life; the deep surrounded me; weeds were wrapped about my head at the roots of the mountains. I went down to the land whose bars closed upon me forever; yet you brought up my life from the pit, O Lord my God. When my life was fainting away, I remembered the Lord, and my prayer came to you, into your holy temple. Those who pay regard to vain idols forsake their hope a of steadfast love. But I with the voice of thanksgiving will sacrifice to you; what I have vowed I will pay. Salvation belongs to the Lord!” (2:1-9)”

A. INFERENCE: “And the Lord spoke to the fish, and it vomited Jonah out upon the dry land.” (2:10)

1. FINDINGS: Jonah still had a long distance to go before reaching Ninevah which is inland by a significant distance. (2:10)

2. CRITERIA: “Salvation belongs to the Lord.” (2:9)

3. CONDITION: “The Lord still has an unfulfilled mission for Jonah.” (2:10)

4. CAUSE: “Jonah failed to follow the Lord God’s instructions.” (1:2)

5. EFFECT: Jonah wasted time and brought danger to innocent seaman. (1:10-12) [When the Lord wants you, He is going to get you. Resistance won’t work!]

6. RECOMMENDATION: Jonah must keep going toward Nineveh. (2:10)

Jonah 3, Jonah Goes to Nineveh

I. KEY TEXT: “Then the word of the Lord came to Jonah the second time, saying, ‘Arise, go to Nineveh, the great city, and call out against it the message that I tell you.'” (3:1-2)

A. INFERENCE: “So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, three days’ journey in breadth.” (3:3)

1. FINDINGS: “Jonah began to go into the city, going a day’s journey. And he called out, ‘Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown! And the people of Nineveh believed God. They called for a fast and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them to the least of them.” (3:4-5)

2. CRITERIA: “No vain idols, evil, and violence.” (2:8, 3:8)

3. CONDITION: Apparently, vain idols were widespread in Nineveh and an abhorrence to the Lord God.

4. CAUSE: “Vain idols.” (2:8)

5. EFFECT: “The word reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, removed his robe, covered himself with sackcloth, and sat in ashes. And he issued a proclamation and published through Nineveh, ‘By the decree of the king and his nobles: Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste anything. Let them not feed or drink water, but let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and let them call out mightyly to God. Let everyone turn from his evil way and from the violence that is in his hands. Who knows? God may turn and relent and turn from his fierce anger, so that we may not perish.” (3:6-9)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “The Ninevites turned away from their evil way, and God relented of the disaster that he had said he would do to them, and he did not do it.” (3:10)

Jonah 4, Jonah’s Anger and the Lord’s Compassion

I. KEY TEXT: “But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was angry. And he prayed to the Lord and said, ‘O Lord, is not this what I said when I was yet in my country?” (4:1)

A. INFERENCE: “That is why I made haste to flee to Tarshish; for I knew that you are a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and relenting from disaster. Therefore now, O Lord, please take my life from me, for it is better for me to die than to live.'” (4:2-3)

1. FINDINGS: “And the Lord said, ‘Do you do well to be angry?'” (4:4)

2. CRITERIA: “And the Lord said, . . . And should not I pity Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know their right hand from their left, and also much cattle.” (4:10-11)

3. CONDITION: “Jonah went out of the city and sat to the east of the city and made a booth for himself there. He sat under it in the shade, till he should see what would become of the city. Now the Lord God appointed a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be a shade over his head, to save him from his discomfort. So Jonah was exceedingly glad because of the plant. But when dawn came up the next day, God appointed a worm that attacked the plant, so that it withered. When the sun rose, God appointed a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on the head of Jonah so that he was faint. And he asked that he might die and said, It is better for me to die than to live.” (4:5-8)

4. CAUSE: “But God said to Jonah, ‘Do you do well to be angry for the plant?’ And he said, ‘Yes, I do well to be angry, angry enough to die.’ ” (4:9)

5. EFFECT: “But God said to Jonah, ‘Do you do well to be angry for the plant?’ And he said, ‘Yes, I do well to be angry, angry enough to die.’ And the Lord said, ‘You pity the plant, for which you did not labor, nor did you make it grow, which came into being in a night and perished in a night. And should not I pity Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know their right hand from their left, and also much cattle.'” (4:9-11)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Jonah should trust in the Lord and follow him while accepting the plight of the residents of Nineveh and their turning to the Lord God.”

Micha 1, The Coming Destruction

I. KEY TEXT: “The word of the Lord that came to Micha of Moresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem. Hear, you peoples, all of you; pay attention, O earth, and all that is in it, and let the Lord God be a witness agaiast you, the Lord from his holy temple. For behold, the Lord is coming out of his place, and will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mountains will melt under him, and the valleys will split open, like wax before the fire, like waters poured down a steep place.” (1:1-4)

A. INFERENCE: “All this is for the transgression of Jacob and for the sins of the house of Israel.” (1:5)

1. FINDINGS: “Is it not Samaria? And what is the high place of Judah? Is it not Jerusalem? Therefore I will make Samaria a heap in the open country, a place for planting vineyards, and I will pour down her stones into the valley and uncover her foundations. All her carved images shall be beaten to pieces, all her wages shall be burned with fire, and all her idols I will lay waste, for from the fee of a prostitute she gathered them, and to the fee of a prostitute they shall return.” (1:5-7)

2. CRITERIA: “No idols, carved images.” (Exodus 20)

3. CONDITION: “For this I will lament and wail; I will go stripped and naked; I will make lamentation like the jackals, and mourning like the ostriches. For her wound is incurable, and it has come to Judah; it has reached to the gate of my people, to Jerusalem.” (1:8-9)

4. CAUSE: “. . . disaster has come down from the Lord to the gate of Jerusalem.” (1:12)

5. EFFECT: “. . . for they shall go from you into exile.” (1:16)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wait for the God of Salvation.” (Micha 7)

Micha 2, Woe to the Oppressors

I. KEY TEXT:Woe to those who devise wickedness and work evil on their beds! When the morning dawns, they perform it, because it is in the power of their hand. They covet fields and seize them, and houses, and take them away; they oppress a man and his house, a man and his inheritance.” (2:1-2)

A. INFERENCE: “Therefore thus says the Lord: behold, against this family I am devising disaster, from which you cannot remove your necks, and you shall not walk haughtily, for it will be a time of disaster.” (2:3)

1. FINDINGS: “In that day they shall take up a taunt song against you and moan bitterly, and say, ‘We are utterly ruined; he changes the portion of my people; how he removes it from me! To an apostate he allots our fields.'” (2:4)

2. CRITERIA: “‘Do not preach’–thus they preach–one should not preach such things; disgrace will not overtake us. Should this be said, O house of Jacob? Has the Lord grown impatient? Are these his deeds? do not my words do good to him who walks uprightly?” (2:7)

3. CONDITION: “But lately my people have risen up as an enemy; you strip the rich robe from those who pass by trustingly with no thought of war. The women of my people you drive out from their delightful houses; from their young children you take away my splendor forever.” (2:8-9)

4. CAUSE: “Arise and go, for this is no place to rest, because of uncleanness that destroys with a grievous destruction.” (2:10)

5. EFFECT: “If a man should go about and utter wind and lies, saying, ‘I will preach to you of wine and strong drink,’ he would be the preacher for this people!” (2:11)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “I will surely assemble all of you, O Jacob; I will gather the remnant of Israel; I will set them together like sheep in a fold, like a flock in its pasture, a noisy multitude of men. He who opens the breach goes up before them; they break through and pass the gate, goin out by it. Their king passes on before them, the Lord at their head.” (2:12-13)

Micha 3, Rulers and Prophets Denounced

I. KEY TEXT: “And I said: Hear, you heads of Jacob and rulers of the house of Israel! Is it not for you to know justice:–you who hate the good and love the evil, who tear the skin from off my people and their flesh from off their bones, who eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them, and break their bones in pieces and chop them up like meat in a pot, like flesh in a cauldron.” (3:1-3)

A. INFERENCE: “Then they will cry to the Lord, but he will not answer them; he will hide his face from them at that time, because they have made their deeds evil.” (3:4)

1. FINDINGS: “Therefore it shall be night to you, without vision, and darkness to you, without divination. The sun shall go down on the prophets, and the day shall be black over them; the seers shall be disgraced, and the diviners put to shame; they shall all cover their lips, for there is no answer from God.” (3:6-7)

2. CRITERIA: “But as for me, I am filled with power, with the Spirit of the Lord, and with justice and might, to declare to Jacob his transgression and to Israel his sin.” (3:8)

3. CONDITION: “Hear this, you heads of the house of Jacob and rulers of the house of Israel, who detest justice and make crooked all that is straight, who build Zion with blood and Jerusalem with iniquity.” (3:9-10)

4. CAUSE: “Its heads give judgment for a bribe; its priests teach for a price; its prophets practice divination for money; yet they lean on the Lord and say, ‘Is not the Lord in the midst of us?’ No disaster shall come upon us.” (3:11)

5. EFFECT: “Therefore because of you Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the house a wooded height.” (3:12)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Turn to the Lord God and do all of his ways.”

Micha 4, The Mountain of the Lord

I. KEY TEXT: “It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established as the highest of the mountains and it shall be lifted up above the hills; and peoples shall flow to it, and many nations shall come, and say; ‘Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob, that he may teach us his ways and that we may walk in his paths.'” (4:1-2)

A. INFERENCE: “For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. He shall judge between many peoples, and shall decide for strong nations far away; and they shall beat their swords into plow shears, and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore; but they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree, and no one shall make them afraid, for the mouth of the Lord of hosts has spoken. For all the peoples walk each in the name of its god, but we will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever.” (4:2-5)

1. FINDINGS: “In that day, declares the Lord, I will assemble the lame and gather those who have been driven away and those whom I have afflicted; and the lame I will make the remnant, and those who were cast off, a strong nation; and the Lord will reign over them in Mount Zion from this time forth and forevermore.” (4:6-7)

2. CRITERIA: “And you, O tower of the flock, hill of the daughter of Zion, to you shall it come, the former dominion shall come, the former dominion shall come, kingship for the daughter of Jerusalem.” (4:8)

3. CONDITION: “Now why do you cry aloud? Is there no king in you? Has your counselor perished, that pain seized you like a woman in labor? Writhe and groan, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in labor, for now you shall go out from the city and dwell in the open country; you shall go to Babylon. There you shall be rescued; there the Lord will redeem you from the hand of your enemies.” (4:9-10)

4. CAUSE: “Now many nations are assembled against you, saying, ‘Let her be defiled, and let our eyes gaze upon Zion.'” (4:11)

5. EFFECT: “But they do not know the thoughts of the Lord; they do not understand his plan, that he has gathered them as sheaves to the threshing floor.” (4:12)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs bronze; you shall beat in pieces many peoples; and shall devote their gain to the Lord, their wealth to the Lord of the whole earth.” (4:13)

Micha 5, The Ruler to Be Born in Bethlehem

I. KEY TEXT: “Now muster your troops, O daughter of troops; siege is laid against us; with a rod they strike the judge of Israel on the cheek. But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, who are too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose coming forth is from of old from ancient days.” (5:1-2)

A. INFERENCE: “Therefore he shall give them up until the time when she who is in labor has given birth; then the rest of his brothers shall return to the people of Israel.” (5:3)

1. FINDINGS: “And he shall stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of he Lord his God. And they shall dwell secure, for now he shall be great to the ends of the earth. And he shall be their peace.” (5:4-5) [Jesus can be seen here]

2. CRITERIA: “No other gods . . .” (Exodus 20)

3. CONDITION: “When the Assyrian comes into our land and treads in our palaces, then we will rise against him seven shepherds and eight princes of men; they shall shepherd the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod at its entrances; and he shall deliver us from the Assyrian when he comes into our land and treads within our border.” (5:6)

4. CAUSE: “. . . tellers of fortunes; carved images, pillars, work of your hands; and Asherah images . . .” (5:12-14)

5. EFFECT: “And in anger and wrath I will execute vengeance on the nations that did not obey.” (5:15)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wait for the God of Salvation.” (Micha 7)

Micha 6, The Indictment of the Lord

I. KEY TEXT: “Hear what the Lord says: Arise, plead your case before the mountains, and let the hills hear your voice. Hear, you mountains, the indictment of the Lord, and your enduring foundations of the earth, for the Lord has an indictment against his people, and he will contend with Israel.” (6:12)

A. INFERENCE: “O my people, what have I done to you? How have I wearied you? Answer me! For I brought you up from the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of slavery, and I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.” (6:3-4)

1. FINDINGS: “He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?” (6:8)

2. CRITERIA: “The voice of the Lord cries to the city–and it is sound wisdom to fear your name: ‘Hear of the rod and of him who appointed it! Can I forget any longer the treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked, and the scant measure that is accursed?” (6:9-10)

3. CONDITION: “Can I forget any longer the treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked, and the scant measure that is accursed? Shall I acquit the man with wicked scales and with a bag of deceitful weights? Your rich men are full of violence; your inhabitants speak lies, and their tongue is deceitful in their mouth. There I strike you with a grievous blow, making you desolate because of your sins.” (6:13)

4. CAUSE: “. . . sins.” (6:13)

5. EFFECT: “You shall sow, but not reap; you shall tread olives, but not anoint yourselves with oil; you shall tread grapes, but not drink wine. For you have kept the statues of Omri, and all the works of the house of Ahab; and you have walked in their counsels, that I may make you a desolation, and your inhabitants a hissing; so you shall bear the scorn of my people.” (6:14-16)

6. RECOMMENDATION: “Wait for the God of Salvation.” (Micha 1:7)

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